International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
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Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
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Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1982 Canola, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-butyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass15
2 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1982 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorpropham, chlorsulfuron, clomazone, diclofop-methyl, ethalfluralin, fluazifop-butyl, imazapyr, metolachlor, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, tri-allate, triasulfuron, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 7 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly (F4/13)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
Inhibition of Microtubule Organization (K2/23)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass389
3 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1984 Cropland, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metsulfuron-methyl 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass324
4 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1984 Cropland, and Pasture seed trifluralin 1 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass330
5 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1984 Cropland metolachlor 1 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass398
6 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1984 Pastures, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-butyl, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-ethyl, sethoxydim, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5042
7 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1985 Canola, Chickpea, Faba beans, Lentils, Lupins, Peas, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triasulfuron, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass4
8 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1988 Railways, and Roadsides amitrole 1 Inhibition of Lycopene Cyclase (F3/11)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass316
9 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1988 Cropland, Pasture seed, Railways, Roadsides, and Triazine-tolerant canola atrazine, and simazine 1 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass480
10 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1994 Cereals trifluralin 1 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5226
11 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1996 Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, and Wheat glyphosate 1 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass380
12 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1997 Apples, Around Buildings, Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, Irrigation Channels, Roadsides, and Wheat glyphosate 1 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5094
13 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1999 Alfalfa, Cereals, Clover, Fencelines, Grapes, Irrigation Channels, and Roadsides glyphosate 1 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5188
14 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1999 Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, glyphosate, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5363
15 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2003 Cereals, Fencelines, Grapes, Railways, and Roadsides glyphosate 1 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5325
16 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2008 Grapes amitrole, and glyphosate 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Lycopene Cyclase (F3/11)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5515
17 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2010 Pasture seed clethodim, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5489
18 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2010 Pasture seed atrazine, chlorsulfuron, clethodim, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5510
19 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2013 Grapes glyphosate, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass6754
20 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2015 Wheat tri-allate 1 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass11023
21 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2015 Wheat tri-allate 1 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass11031
22 ChileChile 1997 Canola, Cereals, Lupins, Spring wheat, and Winter wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, haloxyfop-methyl, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 8 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5102
23 ChileChile 2003 Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, flucarbazone-Na, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, pinoxaden, and tepraloxydim 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5427
24 FranceFrance 1993 Wheat diclofop-methyl 17 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass550
25 FranceFrance 2005 Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate 17 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5285
26 FranceFrance 2006 Wheat flupyrsulfuron-methyl-Na, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, mesosulfuron-methyl, and propoxycarbazone-Na 17 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5330
27 GreeceGreece 1997 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 19 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass553
28 GreeceGreece 2009 Winter wheat chlorsulfuron 19 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass13053
29 GreeceGreece 2016 Orchards glyphosate 19 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass17137
30 GreeceGreece 2017 Grapes, Olive, and Orchards glufosinate-ammonium 19 Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase (H/10)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass17136
31 IranIran 2007 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 79 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5340
32 IsraelIsrael 1979 Orchards, and Roadsides atrazine, and simazine 23 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass97
33 IsraelIsrael 1998 Alfalfa, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden, and quizalofop-ethyl 23 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5109
34 IsraelIsrael 2007 Wheat chlorsulfuron, clodinafop-propargyl, florasulam, flumetsulam, glyphosate, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, mesosulfuron-methyl, metosulam, pinoxaden, propoxycarbazone-Na, sulfometuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 23 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5556
35 IsraelIsrael 2013 Carrots, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, propoxycarbazone-Na, and sulfometuron-methyl 23 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass10992
36 ItalyItaly 2007 Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate 24 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5370
37 Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia 1992 Cereals, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and tralkoxydim 35 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass551
38 South AfricaSouth Africa 1993 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, imazamox, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass192
39 South AfricaSouth Africa 2001 Grapes glyphosate 37 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5093
40 South AfricaSouth Africa 2002 Fruit, and Grapes paraquat 37 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5119
41 South AfricaSouth Africa 2003 Grapes glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, paraquat, and tepraloxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5239
42 SpainSpain 1992 Wheat chlorotoluron, and diclofop-methyl 38 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass172
43 SpainSpain 1992 Wheat diclofop-methyl 38 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass173
44 SpainSpain 1992 Orchards simazine 38 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass174
45 SpainSpain 2006 Orchards glyphosate 38 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5332
46 SpainSpain 2016 Olive glyphosate, and oxyfluorfen 38 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass17105
47 TunisiaTunisia 1996 Cereals diclofop-methyl 78 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5028
48 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1998 Almonds, and Orchards glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass1034
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