International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP G/9 RESISTANT RIGID RYEGRASS
(Lolium rigidum)


EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)

Australia, New South Wales
INTRODUCTION RIGID RYEGRASS
Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In New South Wales this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 1997 and infests Apples, Around Buildings, Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, Irrigation Channels, Roadsides, and Wheat.   Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group G/9 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 22, 2014 )

Common NameRigid Ryegrass
SpeciesLolium rigidum
GroupEPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Herbicidesglyphosate
LocationAustralia, New South Wales
Year1997
Situation(s)Apples, Around Buildings, Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, Irrigation Channels, Roadsides, and Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)John Broster, Jim Dellow, Christopher Preston, and Andrew Storrie 
Edit this Case  |  Add New Case of Resistance  |  Add Note

NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Andrew Storrie
Subsequent infestations of glyphosate resistant ryegrass were found on the Liverpool plains, which is in northern NSW. Seed from this was tested by Jim Pratley's team at Wagga and Chris Preston's team at Adelaide. Also have 2 farms in a different agricultural zone between Barradine and Coonamble, NSW. This area has no links to the Liverpool Plains area. Patches to individual tussocks would be spread over at least 5000 ac (2000 ha). There are several farms where whole fields are infested with resistant ryegrass. Other infestations are being found along irrigation channels and various types of orchards.

Edit this Note  |  Add New Note
 
CONTROL STRATEGIES

Andrew Storrie
Methods of control for patches and individual plants include spot spraying or the use of “detect’ type sprayers with clethodim. The use of clethodim is considered a high risk for the development of ACCASE resistance. Farmers with larger infestations have resorted to cultivation, which is a big step for these no-tillers. Trifluralin is used pre-plant on winter broadleaf crops. The majority of these growers don't run livestock on these areas, so pastures are not a viable management option.

Edit this Note  |  Add New Note
 
GENERAL

Jim Dellow
The first case was found in an Apple orchard. Research was conducted by the Waite Group.

Edit this Note  |  Add New Note
 
ONGOING RESEARCH

Andrew Storrie
This winter (2004) we conducted a pre-plant “double knockdown” trial on resistant ryegrass at DC 11-13. Glyphosate (675 g a.i./ha) was applied first, followed 8 or 14 days later by another knockdown herbicide. The glyphosate stuns the resistant plants for 7-10 days before the ryegrass begins to re-grow. Paraquat (375 g a.i/ha) at 8 days gave 89% and 14 days gave 97% control respectively. The later application controlled later emerging seedlings. Single applications of glufosinate at 400g a.i./ha and 800g a.i./ha gave 78% and 91% control respectively. We need to investigate the strategic use of residual products in this farming system and still maintain cropping flexibility.

Edit this Note  |  Add New Note
 

ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Rigid Ryegrass biotype with this Rigid Ryegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group G/9 resistant Rigid Ryegrass indicate that the inheritance is determined by a one gene, semi dominant, nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group G/9 resistant Rigid Ryegrass from New South Wales indicate that resistance is due to unknown, and altered translocation.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

Researchers have indicated that Group G/9 resistant Rigid Ryegrass is ecologically less fit than normal susceptible Rigid Ryegrass.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the fitness of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Edit Case  |  Add Note  |  Add Article  |  Add New Case  |  Help

CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JOHN BROSTER
Research Agronomist
Charles Sturt University
EH Graham Centre
Locked Bag 588
Wagga Wagga, 2678, New South Wales
Australia
Email John Broster
JIM DELLOW
Research Agronomist
Orange Agricultural Institute
EH Graham Centre
One Shields Avenue
Orange, 2800, New South Wales
Australia
Email Jim Dellow
CHRISTOPHER PRESTON
Research Agronomist
University Of Adelaide - Waite Campus
Crc For Australian Weed Management And School Of Agriculture
Box 2146
Adelaide, 5064, South Australia
Australia
Email Christopher Preston
ANDREW STORRIE
Principal
Agronomo
Crc For Australian Weed Management And School Of Agriculture
Po Box 5444
Albany, 6332, Western Australia
Australia
Email Andrew Storrie
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in New South Wales have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to John Broster, Jim Dellow, Christopher Preston, and Andrew Storrie for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1982 Canola, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass15
2 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1982 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorpropham, chlorsulfuron, clomazone, diclofop-methyl, ethalfluralin, fluazifop-P-butyl, imazapyr, metolachlor, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triallate, triasulfuron, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 7 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
DOXP inhibitors (F4/13)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
Mitosis inhibitors (K2/23)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass389
3 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1984 Cropland, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metsulfuron-methyl 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass324
4 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1984 Cropland, and Pasture seed trifluralin 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass330
5 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1984 Cropland metolachlor 1 Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass398
6 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1984 Pastures, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5042
7 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1985 Canola, Chickpea, Faba beans, Lentils, Lupins, Peas, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triasulfuron, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass4
8 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1988 Railways, and Roadsides amitrole 1 Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass316
9 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1988 Cropland, Pasture seed, Railways, Roadsides, and Triazine-tolerant canola atrazine, and simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass480
10 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1994 Cereals trifluralin 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5226
11 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1996 Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, and Wheat glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass380
12 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1997 Apples, Around Buildings, Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, Irrigation Channels, Roadsides, and Wheat glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5094
13 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1999 Alfalfa, Cereals, Clover, Fencelines, Grapes, Irrigation Channels, and Roadsides glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5188
14 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1999 Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, glyphosate, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5363
15 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2003 Cereals, Fencelines, Grapes, Railways, and Roadsides glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5325
16 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2008 Grapes amitrole, and glyphosate 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5515
17 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2010 Pasture seed clethodim, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5489
18 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2010 Pasture seed atrazine, chlorsulfuron, clethodim, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5510
19 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2013 Grapes glyphosate, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass6754
20 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2015 Wheat triallate 1 Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass11023
21 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2015 Wheat triallate 1 Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass11031
22 ChileChile 1997 Canola, Cereals, Lupins, Spring wheat, and Winter wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, haloxyfop-methyl, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 8 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5102
23 ChileChile 2003 Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, flucarbazone-sodium, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and tepraloxydim 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5427
24 FranceFrance 1993 Wheat diclofop-methyl 17 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass550
25 FranceFrance 2005 Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate 17 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5285
26 FranceFrance 2006 Wheat flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and propoxycarbazone-sodium 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5330
27 GreeceGreece 1997 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 19 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass553
28 GreeceGreece 2009 Winter wheat chlorsulfuron 19 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass13053
29 IranIran 2007 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5340
30 IsraelIsrael 1979 Orchards, and Roadsides atrazine, and simazine 23 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass97
31 IsraelIsrael 1998 Alfalfa, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden, and quizalofop-P-ethyl 23 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5109
32 IsraelIsrael 2007 Wheat chlorsulfuron, clodinafop-propargyl, florasulam, flumetsulam, glyphosate, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metosulam, pinoxaden, propoxycarbazone-sodium, sulfometuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 23 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5556
33 IsraelIsrael 2013 Carrots, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, propoxycarbazone-sodium, and sulfometuron-methyl 23 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass10992
34 ItalyItaly 2007 Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate 24 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5370
35 Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia 1992 Cereals, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and tralkoxydim 35 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass551
36 South AfricaSouth Africa 1993 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, imazamox, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass192
37 South AfricaSouth Africa 2001 Grapes glyphosate 37 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5093
38 South AfricaSouth Africa 2002 Fruit, and Grapes paraquat 37 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5119
39 South AfricaSouth Africa 2003 Grapes glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, paraquat, and tepraloxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5239
40 SpainSpain 1992 Wheat chlorotoluron, and diclofop-methyl 38 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass172
41 SpainSpain 1992 Wheat diclofop-methyl 38 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass173
42 SpainSpain 1992 Orchards simazine 38 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass174
43 SpainSpain 2006 Orchards glyphosate 38 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5332
44 TunisiaTunisia 1996 Cereals diclofop-methyl 78 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5028
45 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1998 Almonds, and Orchards glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass1034
Literature about Similar Cases

Page size:
select
Page: of 59
Items 1 to 5 of 295

Page size:
select
Page: of 59
Items 1 to 5 of 295
PERMISSION MUST BE OBTAINED FIRST if you intend to base a significant portion of a scientific paper on data derived from this site.
Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Thursday, June 29, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
Copyright © 1993- 2017 WeedScience.org All rights reserved. Fair use of this material is encouraged. Proper citation is requested.