International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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Weeds Resistant to Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
by species and country
Weeds Resistant to Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
by species and country
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Weeds Resistant to Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
by species and country
#SpeciesCountryFirst Year
1 Abutilon theophrasti
Velvetleaf
1984 - United States (Maryland)
1990 - United States (Wisconsin)
1991 - United States (Minnesota)
2004 - United States (Michigan)
19841Abutilon theophrastiVelvetleafC145Photosystem II inhibitors
2 Alopecurus myosuroides
Blackgrass
1996 - Belgium *Multiple - 5 SOA's
19966Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
3 Amaranthus albus
Tumble Pigweed
1987 - Spain
19877Amaranthus albusTumble PigweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
4 Amaranthus blitoides
Prostrate Pigweed
1983 - Israel
1986 - Spain
1991 - Israel *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2012 - United States (Michigan)
19839Amaranthus blitoidesProstrate PigweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
5 Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus)
Livid Amaranth
1978 - Switzerland
1981 - France
197813Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus)Livid AmaranthC145Photosystem II inhibitors
6 Amaranthus cruentus
Red Amaranth
1989 - Spain
198911Amaranthus cruentusRed AmaranthC145Photosystem II inhibitors
7 Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)
Smooth Pigweed
1972 - United States (Maryland)
1976 - United States (Virginia)
1977 - United States (Delaware)
1978 - Italy
1980 - France
1980 - United States (New Jersey)
1980 - United States (New York)
1980 - United States (North Carolina)
1980 - United States (Pennsylvania)
1982 - Switzerland
1985 - Spain
1985 - United States (Wisconsin)
1986 - Israel
1987 - United States (Kentucky)
1993 - South Africa
1993 - United States (Illinois)
2000 - United States (Illinois) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
197212Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth PigweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
8 Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
1993 - United States (Texas)
1995 - United States (Kansas)
2008 - United States (Georgia)
2009 - United States (Kansas) *Multiple - 3 SOA's
2010 - United States (Georgia) *Multiple - 3 SOA's
2011 - United States (Nebraska)
2014 - United States (Nebraska) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2016 - United States (Nebraska) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
199314Amaranthus palmeriPalmer AmaranthC145Photosystem II inhibitors
9 Amaranthus powellii
Powell Amaranth
1977 - Canada (Ontario)
1982 - France
1986 - Switzerland
1989 - Czech Republic
1992 - United States (Washington)
1998 - Canada (Ontario) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1999 - Canada (Ontario) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2001 - United States (Michigan) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
197715Amaranthus powelliiPowell AmaranthC145Photosystem II inhibitors
10 Amaranthus retroflexus
Redroot Pigweed
1980 - Canada (Ontario)
1980 - France
1980 - Germany *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1980 - United States (Indiana)
1982 - Switzerland
1982 - United States (Colorado)
1984 - Bulgaria
1984 - United States (Connecticut)
1984 - United States (New Hampshire)
1985 - Czech Republic
1985 - United States (Maine)
1986 - Spain
1990 - China
1991 - Poland
1991 - United States (Minnesota)
1991 - United States (Vermont)
1993 - United States (Virginia)
1994 - United States (Oregon)
1995 - United States (Kansas)
1998 - United States (Pennsylvania) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1999 - Italy
2000 - Greece
2000 - United States (West Virginia)
2001 - United States (Michigan) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2005 - United States (Idaho)
2010 - United States (Washington)
2011 - Brazil *Multiple - 2 SOA's
198016Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot PigweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
11 Amaranthus tuberculatus (=A. rudis)
Tall Waterhemp
1994 - United States (Missouri)
1995 - United States (Kansas)
1996 - United States (Illinois) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1996 - United States (Iowa)
1996 - United States (Nebraska)
2001 - United States (Illinois)
2002 - Canada (Ontario) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2002 - United States (Illinois) *Multiple - 3 SOA's
2009 - United States (Illinois) *Multiple - 3 SOA's
2009 - United States (Illinois) *Multiple - 4 SOA's
2009 - United States (Iowa) *Multiple - 3 SOA's
2009 - United States (Nebraska) *Multiple - 3 SOA's
2011 - United States (Iowa) *Multiple - 4 SOA's
2016 - United States (Illinois) *Multiple - 5 SOA's
1994219Amaranthus tuberculatus (=A. rudis)Tall WaterhempC145Photosystem II inhibitors
12 Amaranthus viridis
Slender Amaranth
2011 - Brazil *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2011287Amaranthus viridisSlender AmaranthC145Photosystem II inhibitors
13 Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Common Ragweed
1976 - Canada (Ontario)
1990 - United States (Michigan)
1993 - United States (New York)
197618Ambrosia artemisiifoliaCommon RagweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
14 Arabidopsis thaliana
Mouse-ear Cress
1988 - United Kingdom
1988292Arabidopsis thalianaMouse-ear CressC145Photosystem II inhibitors
15 Arenaria serpyllifolia
Thymeleaf Sandwort
1980 - France
198022Arenaria serpyllifoliaThymeleaf SandwortC145Photosystem II inhibitors
16 Atriplex patula
Halberdleaf Orach
1980 - Germany
2003 - United States (Michigan)
2015 - Belgium
198026Atriplex patulaHalberdleaf OrachC145Photosystem II inhibitors
17 Bidens pilosa
Hairy Beggarticks
2016 - Brazil *Multiple - 2 SOA's
201632Bidens pilosaHairy BeggarticksC145Photosystem II inhibitors
18 Bidens subalternans
Greater Beggarticks
2006 - Brazil *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2006194Bidens subalternansGreater BeggarticksC145Photosystem II inhibitors
19 Bidens tripartita
Bur Beggarticks
1979 - Austria
197933Bidens tripartitaBur BeggarticksC145Photosystem II inhibitors
20 Brachypodium distachyon
Annual Falsebrome
1975 - Israel
197535Brachypodium distachyonAnnual FalsebromeC145Photosystem II inhibitors
21 Brassica rapa (=B. campestris)
Birdsrape Mustard
1977 - Canada (Quebec)
197736Brassica rapa (=B. campestris)Birdsrape MustardC145Photosystem II inhibitors
22 Bromus tectorum
Downy Brome (Cheatgrass)
1981 - France
1990 - Spain
198140Bromus tectorumDowny Brome (Cheatgrass)C145Photosystem II inhibitors
23 Capsella bursa-pastoris
Shepherd's-purse
1984 - Poland
2007 - United States (Oregon)
198441Capsella bursa-pastorisShepherd's-purseC145Photosystem II inhibitors
24 Chenopodium album
Common Lambsquarters
1973 - Canada (Ontario)
1975 - United States (Michigan)
1977 - Switzerland
1977 - United States (New York)
1978 - France
1979 - New Zealand
1979 - United States (Virginia)
1979 - United States (Wisconsin)
1980 - Belgium
1980 - Germany
1980 - Netherlands
1980 - United States (Indiana)
1980 - United States (North Carolina)
1980 - United States (Pennsylvania)
1981 - United States (Ohio)
1982 - Italy
1982 - United States (Maryland)
1982 - United States (Minnesota)
1983 - United States (Massachusetts)
1985 - United States (Illinois)
1985 - United States (Maine)
1986 - Czech Republic
1986 - United States (New Hampshire)
1987 - Spain
1988 - United States (Delaware)
1989 - Bulgaria
1989 - United Kingdom
1989 - United States (Iowa)
1991 - Poland
1991 - United States (Vermont)
1992 - United States (Connecticut)
1994 - Norway
1995 - United States (Rhode Island)
1996 - Slovenia
1998 - United States (Tennessee)
2000 - Greece
2000 - United States (West Virginia)
2003 - Portugal
2005 - Sweden
2010 - United States (Washington)
197347Chenopodium albumCommon LambsquartersC145Photosystem II inhibitors
25 Chenopodium album var. striatum (=C. strictum var. glaucophyllum)
Lateflowering Goosefoot
1976 - Canada (Ontario)
1989 - Czech Republic
2004 - United States (Michigan)
197651Chenopodium album var. striatum (=C. strictum var. glaucophyllum)Lateflowering GoosefootC145Photosystem II inhibitors
26 Chenopodium ficifolium
Figleaved Goosefoot
1980 - Germany
1986 - Switzerland
198048Chenopodium ficifoliumFigleaved GoosefootC145Photosystem II inhibitors
27 Chenopodium polyspermum
Manyseeded Goosefoot
1980 - France
1982 - Switzerland
1988 - Germany
198050Chenopodium polyspermumManyseeded GoosefootC145Photosystem II inhibitors
28 Chloris barbata = (C. inflate)
Swollen Fingergrass
1987 - United States (Hawaii)
198753Chloris barbata = (C. inflate)Swollen FingergrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
29 Conyza bonariensis
Hairy Fleabane
1987 - Spain
1993 - Israel
198760Conyza bonariensisHairy FleabaneC145Photosystem II inhibitors
30 Conyza canadensis
Horseweed
1981 - France
1982 - Switzerland
1982 - United Kingdom
1983 - Poland
1987 - Czech Republic
1987 - Spain
1989 - Belgium
1993 - Israel *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2002 - United States (Michigan) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
198161Conyza canadensisHorseweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
31 Crypsis schoenoides
Swamp Pricklegrass
1995 - Israel
199567Crypsis schoenoidesSwamp PricklegrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
32 Datura stramonium
Jimsonweed
1992 - United States (Indiana)
199275Datura stramoniumJimsonweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
33 Digitaria sanguinalis
Large Crabgrass
1983 - France
1995 - Poland
2005 - Czech Republic
198377Digitaria sanguinalisLarge CrabgrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
34 Echinochloa colona
Junglerice
2004 - Australia (New South Wales )
2009 - Iran
200478Echinochloa colonaJunglericeC145Photosystem II inhibitors
35 Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
Barnyardgrass
1978 - United States (Maryland)
1981 - Canada (Ontario)
1982 - France
1992 - Spain
1994 - Czech Republic
1995 - Poland
197879Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
36 Eleusine indica
Goosegrass
2003 - United States (Hawaii)
200381Eleusine indicaGoosegrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
37 Epilobium ciliatum
Fringed Willowherb
1980 - Belgium
1981 - United Kingdom
1995 - Poland
198082Epilobium ciliatumFringed WillowherbC145Photosystem II inhibitors
38 Epilobium tetragonum
Square-stalked Willowherb
1981 - France
1988 - Germany
198184Epilobium tetragonumSquare-stalked WillowherbC145Photosystem II inhibitors
39 Galinsoga ciliata
Hairy Galinsoga
1980 - Germany
1991 - Switzerland
198092Galinsoga ciliataHairy GalinsogaC145Photosystem II inhibitors
40 Kochia scoparia
Kochia
1976 - United States (Kansas)
1982 - United States (Colorado)
1984 - United States (Montana)
1984 - United States (Wyoming)
1985 - United States (Iowa)
1987 - United States (Wisconsin)
1992 - United States (Illinois)
1995 - United States (Illinois) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1995 - United States (Indiana) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1996 - Czech Republic *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1998 - United States (North Dakota)
2004 - United States (North Dakota) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2013 - United States (Kansas) *Multiple - 4 SOA's
2014 - United States (Nebraska)
1976101Kochia scopariaKochiaC145Photosystem II inhibitors
41 Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
1979 - Israel
1988 - Australia (Western Australia)
1992 - Spain
2010 - Australia (South Australia) *Multiple - 5 SOA's
1979112Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
42 Matricaria discoidea
Pineapple-weed
1989 - United Kingdom
1989115Matricaria discoideaPineapple-weedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
43 Panicum capillare
Witchgrass
1981 - Canada (Ontario)
1981121Panicum capillareWitchgrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
44 Panicum dichotomiflorum
Fall Panicum
1981 - Spain
1981122Panicum dichotomiflorumFall PanicumC145Photosystem II inhibitors
45 Phalaris paradoxa
Hood Canarygrass
1979 - Israel
1979128Phalaris paradoxaHood CanarygrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
46 Plantago lagopus
Hare's Foot Plantain
1992 - Israel
1992129Plantago lagopusHare's Foot PlantainC145Photosystem II inhibitors
47 Poa annua
Annual Bluegrass
1978 - France
1980 - Germany
1980 - United States (Alabama)
1981 - Belgium
1981 - Netherlands
1981 - United Kingdom
1982 - Japan
1988 - Czech Republic
1994 - United States (Oregon)
1995 - United States (North Carolina)
1996 - Norway
1996 - United States (Mississippi)
2001 - United States (Virginia)
2013 - United States (Tennessee) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1978130Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
48 Polygonum aviculare
Prostrate Knotweed
1987 - Netherlands
1987131Polygonum aviculareProstrate KnotweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
49 Polygonum convolvulus (=Fallopia convolvulus)
Wild Buckwheat
1980 - Austria
1988 - Germany
198088Polygonum convolvulus (=Fallopia convolvulus)Wild BuckwheatC145Photosystem II inhibitors
50 Polygonum hydropiper
Marshpepper Smartweed
1989 - France
1989133Polygonum hydropiperMarshpepper SmartweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
51 Polygonum lapathifolium
Pale Smartweed
1979 - France
1982 - Czech Republic
1988 - Germany
1991 - Spain
1979134Polygonum lapathifoliumPale SmartweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
52 Polygonum pensylvanicum
Pennsylvania Smartweed
1990 - United States (Iowa)
1990135Polygonum pensylvanicumPennsylvania SmartweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
53 Polygonum persicaria
Ladysthumb
1980 - France
1980 - New Zealand
1989 - Czech Republic
2001 - United States (Michigan)
1980136Polygonum persicariaLadysthumbC145Photosystem II inhibitors
54 Polypogon monspeliensis
Rabbitfoot Polypogon
1979 - Israel
1979137Polypogon monspeliensisRabbitfoot PolypogonC145Photosystem II inhibitors
55 Portulaca oleracea
Common Purslane
1991 - United States (Michigan) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1991138Portulaca oleraceaCommon PurslaneC145Photosystem II inhibitors
56 Raphanus raphanistrum
Wild Radish
1999 - Australia (Western Australia)
1999141Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishC145Photosystem II inhibitors
57 Rostraria smyrnacea (=Lophochloa smyrnacea)
Catstail
1979 - Israel
1979114Rostraria smyrnacea (=Lophochloa smyrnacea)CatstailC145Photosystem II inhibitors
58 Senecio vernalis
Eastern Groundsel
2014 - Israel *Multiple - 5 SOA's
2014327Senecio vernalisEastern GroundselC145Photosystem II inhibitors
59 Senecio vulgaris
Common Groundsel
1970 - United States (Washington)
1977 - Canada (Ontario)
1977 - United Kingdom
1980 - Germany
1981 - United States (California)
1982 - Belgium
1982 - France
1982 - Netherlands
1982 - Switzerland
1988 - Czech Republic
1990 - United States (Michigan)
1991 - United States (New York)
1996 - Norway
1970148Senecio vulgarisCommon GroundselC145Photosystem II inhibitors
60 Setaria faberi
Giant Foxtail
1984 - United States (Maryland)
1987 - Spain
1992 - United States (Iowa)
1984149Setaria faberiGiant FoxtailC145Photosystem II inhibitors
61 Setaria pumila (=S. glauca)
Yellow Foxtail
1981 - Canada (Ontario)
1981 - France
1984 - United States (Maryland)
1987 - Spain
1981150Setaria pumila (=S. glauca)Yellow FoxtailC145Photosystem II inhibitors
62 Setaria verticillata
Bristly Foxtail
1992 - Spain
1992152Setaria verticillataBristly FoxtailC145Photosystem II inhibitors
63 Setaria viridis
Green Foxtail
1982 - France
1987 - Spain
1982153Setaria viridisGreen FoxtailC145Photosystem II inhibitors
64 Setaria viridis var. major (=var. robusta-alba, var. robustapurpurea)
Giant Green Foxtail
1982 - France
1982155Setaria viridis var. major (=var. robusta-alba, var. robustapurpurea)Giant Green FoxtailC145Photosystem II inhibitors
65 Sinapis arvensis
Wild Mustard
1983 - Canada (Ontario)
1994 - Canada (Manitoba)
1983158Sinapis arvensisWild MustardC145Photosystem II inhibitors
66 Sisymbrium orientale
Oriental Mustard
2011 - Australia (Victoria)
2011159Sisymbrium orientaleOriental MustardC145Photosystem II inhibitors
67 Solanum nigrum
Black Nightshade
1978 - Italy
1979 - France
1980 - Germany
1981 - Belgium
1981 - Netherlands
1983 - Switzerland
1983 - United Kingdom
1987 - Spain
1995 - Poland
1999 - Czech Republic
1999 - New Zealand
1978162Solanum nigrumBlack NightshadeC145Photosystem II inhibitors
68 Solanum ptycanthum
Eastern Black Nightshade
2004 - United States (Michigan)
2004190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black NightshadeC145Photosystem II inhibitors
69 Sonchus asper
Spiny Sowthistle
1980 - France
1980163Sonchus asperSpiny SowthistleC145Photosystem II inhibitors
70 Stellaria media
Common Chickweed
1978 - Germany
1978168Stellaria mediaCommon ChickweedC145Photosystem II inhibitors
71 Urochloa panicoides
Liverseedgrass
1996 - Australia (Queensland)
1996171Urochloa panicoidesLiverseedgrassC145Photosystem II inhibitors
72 Urtica urens
Burning Nettle
2002 - Australia (Victoria)
2002222Urtica urensBurning NettleC145Photosystem II inhibitors
73 Vulpia bromoides
Squirreltail Fescue
2009 - Australia (Victoria)
2014 - Australia (Western Australia)
2009173Vulpia bromoidesSquirreltail FescueC145Photosystem II inhibitors
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