International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers


Amino acid substitutions that confer herbicide resistance to EPSP synthase inhibitors and that were identified in herbicide-resistant weed populations. Intentionally selected (i.e., laboratory selections) are not included in this table.

Cite: Gaines, T.A., and Heap, I.M. Mutations in herbicide-resistant weeds to EPSP synthase inhibitors. Online 2/25/2021.
Amino AcidSubs(1)SpeciesGLY (2)Year(3)Details
Thr 102 IleEleusine indicaR2015Details
 IleBidens pilosaR2016Details
 SerTridax procumbensr2018Details
 IleBidens subalternansR2019Details
 IleAmaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)R2019Details
Ala 103 ValAmaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)R2019Details
Pro 106 SerEleusine indicar2002Details
 ThrEleusine indicar2003Details
 ThrLolium rigidumr2006Details
 SerLolium perenne ssp. multiflorumr2007Details
 AlaLolium rigidumr2007Details
 AlaLolium perenne ssp. multiflorumr2008Details
 SerLolium rigidumr2008Details
 LeuLolium rigidumr2011Details
 ThrDigitaria insularisr2012Details
 SerAmaranthus tuberculatus (=A. rudis)r2013Details
 SerEchinochloa colonar2013Details
 ThrEchinochloa colonar2014Details
 LeuEchinochloa colonar2015Details
 LeuEleusine indicar2015Details
 SerLolium perenneR2015Details
 SerParthenium hysterophorusr2016Details
 SerBidens pilosaR2016Details
 SerLeptochloa virgataR2016Details
 SerConyza canadensisr2017Details
 SerAmaranthus palmeriR2017Details
 ThrBidens subalternansR2019Details
 SerAmaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)R2019Details

1. Amino acid number is standardized to the Arabidopsis thaliana sequence

2. The letters indicate the level of resistance conferred by the mutation
  • S = Susceptible biotype
  • r = Moderate resistance (< 10-fold relative to sensitive biotype)
  • R = High Resistance (> 10-fold)
  • ND = Not Determined
It should be noted that these classifications are generalizations.

3. The year that the mutation was first reported: see details for reference.

GLY = Glycines

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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Thursday, February 25, 2021 .  Available
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