INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE-RESISTANT WEED DATABASE

MULTIPLE RESISTANT WILD RADISH
(Raphanus raphanistrum)


Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitorsHRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase HRAC Group 27 (Legacy F2)
Auxin Mimics HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)

Australia, Western Australia
INTRODUCTION WILD RADISH
Wild Radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) is a dicot weed in the Brassicaceae family.  In Western Australia this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 5 herbicide sites of action) in 2015 and infests Wheat.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups 2 (Legacy B), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2), Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1), Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase HRAC Group 27 (Legacy F2), and Auxin Mimics HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O).  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to 2,4-D, atrazine, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, fluridone, isoxaflutole, mesotrione, and tembotrione and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups 2 (Legacy B), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2), Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1), Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase HRAC Group 27 (Legacy F2), and Auxin Mimics HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O).

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated May 03, 2021 )

Common NameWild Radish
SpeciesRaphanus raphanistrum
GroupInhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1)

Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase HRAC Group 27 (Legacy F2)

Auxin Mimics HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
Herbicides2,4-D, atrazine, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, fluridone, isoxaflutole, mesotrione, and tembotrione
LocationAustralia, Western Australia
Year2015
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Hugh Beckie, Heping Han, Mechelle Owen, Stephen Powles, and Qin Yu 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Hugh Beckie

DOI 10.1002/ps.5725

Pest Manag Sci 2020; 76: 1929–1937

Evolution of resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in a wild radish population via enhanced herbicide metabolism Huan Lu, Qin Yu,* Heping Han, Mechelle J Owen and Stephen B Powles

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Relatively new herbicides that target 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) are now available for use on the world’s great grain crops (rice, wheat, corn and soybean) and for other uses. With widespread and persistent use of HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, the evolution of HPPD-inhibiting herbicide resistant weeds is inevitable. Currently, resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides is known in two weed species, waterhemp and Palmer amaranth. Here, we report a HPPD-inhibiting herbicide resistant wild radish population from the Western Australia grain belt. This population was not selected with HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, rather it evolved resistance to earlier used herbicides with different modes of action and exhibits cross-resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides.

RESULTS: Dose–response experiments showed the resistant (R) population exhibits 4 to 6.5-fold resistance to the HPPD-inhibiting herbicides mesotrione, tembotrione and isoxaflutole, compared to the susceptible (S) population. This resistance is not target-site based as cloning of full coding sequences of the HPPD genes from S and R plants did not reveal resistance-endowing single nucleotide polymorphisms. The HPPD gene expression levels are similar in S and R plants. In addition, no differences in [14C]-mesotrione uptake and translocation were observed in the S and R plants. However, the time required for R plants to metabolise 50% [14C]-mesotrione is 7.7-fold faster than for the S plants.

CONCLUSION: We confirm resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides exists in a population of the economically damaging global weed wild radish. The resistance in this population is due to a non-target-site based enhanced rate of herbicide metabolism.

  © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry Keywords: wild radish; HPPD-inhibiting herbicides; herbicide resistance; HPPD gene; enhanced metabolism

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MECHANISM

Hugh Beckie

DOI 10.1002/ps.5733

Pest Manag Sci 2020; 76: 2015–2020

Non-target-site resistance to PDS-inhibiting herbicides in a wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) population. Huan Lu,  Qin Yu,* Heping Han,  Mechelle J Owen  and Stephen B Powles

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diflufenican resistance has been reported in wild radish populations since 1998, but the resistance mechanisms have not been investigated. Recently, we identified a wild radish population (H2/10) from the Western Australian grain belt that is resistant (R) to the phytoene desaturase (PDS)-inhibiting herbicide diflufenican.

RESULTS: Dose–response results showed this R population is 4.9-fold more resistant than the susceptible (S) population based on the LD50 R/S ratio. In addition, the R population also exhibits cross-resistance to the PDS-inhibiting herbicide fluridone. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor malathion reversed diflufenican resistance and partially reversed fluridone resistance in the R population. The full coding sequences of the PDS gene were cloned from the S and R plants and there are natural variations in the PDS gene transcripts/alleles with no correlation to resistance. In addition, the R plants had a level of PDS gene expression that is not significantly different from the S plants.

CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that diflufenican resistance in this R wild radish population is likely due to non-target-site based enhanced herbicide metabolism involving cytochrome P450s.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Wild Radish biotype with this Wild Radish biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 2, 5, 12, 27, 4 resistant Wild Radish have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Wild Radish from Western Australia indicate that resistance is due to unknown, an altered target site, and enhanced metabolism.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Wild Radish from Western Australia please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

HUGH BECKIE
Professor of Crop Weed Science...Canadian Expat
University of Western Australia
Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative
School of Agriculture and Environment
35 Stirling Highway
Crawley, 6009, Western Australia
Australia
Email Hugh Beckie
HEPING HAN
Research associate
Australian herbicide resistance initiative
University of Aestern Australia
Crawly
Perth, 6009, Western Australia
Australia
Email Heping Han
MECHELLE OWEN
Senior Research Officer
University of Western Australia
Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative
chool of Agriculture and Environment
qin.yu@uwa.edu.au
Crawley, 6009, Western Australia
Australia
Email Mechelle Owen
STEPHEN POWLES
Professor And Research Director
University Of Western Australia
School Of Plant Biology
2276 Dahlk Circle
Crawley, 6009, Western Australia
Australia
Email Stephen Powles
Web   : Web Site Link
QIN YU
Professor And Research Director
University of Western Australia
Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative
chool of Agriculture and Environment
35 Stirling Highway
Crawley, 6009, Western Australia
Australia
Email Qin Yu
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Western Australia have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Hugh Beckie, Heping Han, Mechelle Owen, Stephen Powles, and Qin Yu for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1997 Cereals, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metosulam 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish522
2 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1998 Cropland chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, and metosulam 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors ( HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5033
3 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1998 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and metosulam 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5034
4 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1999 Lupins, and Triazine-tolerant canola atrazine, and simazine 1 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish1135
5 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1999 Cereals 2,4-D 1 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5358
6 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2004 Cereals chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and triasulfuron 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5338
7 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2006 Cereals 2,4-D, diflufenican, MCPA, and triasulfuron 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors ( HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5364
8 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2009 Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, and metosulam 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7845
9 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2010 Fallow 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, glyphosate, imazethapyr, MCPA, metosulam, and sulfometuron-methyl 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors ( HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7888
10 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2011 Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D 1 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7846
11 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2013 Oats, Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D 1 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7839
12 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2015 Wheat 2,4-D, atrazine, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, fluridone, isoxaflutole, mesotrione, and tembotrione 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors ( HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase ( HRAC Group 27 (Legacy F2)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish19223
13 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2020 Wheat 2,4-D, dicamba, mesotrione, metsulfuron-methyl, pyroxasulfone, and topramezone 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase ( HRAC Group 27 (Legacy F2)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish19219
14 BrazilBrazil 2013 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazapic, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, metsulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl 5 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7895
15 South AfricaSouth Africa 1997 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, metsulfuron-methyl, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl 37 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5197
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