International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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Status of Herbicide Resistance in Western Australia - Hugh Beckie : January, 2014

Western Canada (prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba) and Eastern Canada (primarily southwestern Ontario and Quebec) account for 88 and 12% of principal field annual crop area, respectively. Based on the proportion of total field area at prairie sites infested with herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds, it is estimated that 7.7 million ha (29% of annually cropped land in the prairies) are infested with HR weeds (eight-fold increase from 2001 to 2003), in a total field area of 9.9 million ha (37% of annually cropped land in the prairies) – over a two-fold increase. Group A/1 and/or B/2 wild oat (Avena fatua L.) are by far the most abundant and economically-damaging HR biotypes across the prairies. Numerous populations of Group B/2 wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and false cleavers (Galium spurium L.) across the prairies are also adversely impacting pulse crop (e.g., peas, lentils) production and quality. Glyphosate plus Group B/2 kochia (Kochia scoparia) is increasing rapidly across southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, primarily selected in chem-fallow or cereal-based cropped fields. In Eastern Canada (southwestern Canada), populations of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) are steadily increasing (selected primarily in glyphosate-resistant corn or soybean), as are multiple-resistant populations of these species (glyphosate + Group B/2).

Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Western Australia, Australia.
#YearSpeciesSite of ActionActivesContacts
1 15Rigid Ryegrass1982Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaWestern Australia Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1), Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-butyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, trifluralin Stephen Powles, Gurgeet Gill, Jim Pratley, Christopher Preston, David Bowran
2 324Rigid Ryegrass1984Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaAll states Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl Stephen Powles, David Bowran
3 330Rigid Ryegrass1984Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaAll States Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) trifluralin Stephen Powles, Christopher Preston, David Bowran
4 14Wild Oat1985Avena fatua
Wild Oat
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaWestern Australia Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) diclofop-methyl Gurgeet Gill, David Bowran
5 480Rigid Ryegrass1988Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaWestern Australia PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) atrazine, simazine Stephen Powles, Christopher Preston
6 316Rigid Ryegrass1988Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaWestern Australia Inhibition of Lycopene Cyclase (F3/11) Inhibition of Lycopene Cyclase (F3/11) amitrole Stephen Powles, Christopher Preston
7 12African Mustard1992Brassica tournefortii
African Mustard
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaWestern Australia Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron Gurgeet Gill, David Bowran
8 3Oriental Mustard1994Sisymbrium orientale
Oriental Mustard
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaWestern Australia Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron, metosulam Christopher Preston, Jim Phimster, Abul Hashem, David Bowran
9 522Wild Radish1997Raphanus raphanistrum
Wild Radish
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaWestern Australia Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron, metosulam Stephen Powles, Abul Hashem, David Bowran
10 5030Patersons Curse1997Echium plantagineum
Patersons Curse
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron Abul Hashem
11 5033Wild Radish1998Raphanus raphanistrum
Wild Radish
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, metosulam Abul Hashem
12 5358Wild Radish1999Raphanus raphanistrum
Wild Radish
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaWestern Australia Auxin Mimics (O/4) Auxin Mimics (O/4) 2,4-D Michael Walsh
13 1135Wild Radish1999Raphanus raphanistrum
Wild Radish
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaWestern Australia PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) atrazine, simazine Stephen Powles, Abul Hashem, David Bowran
14 5325Rigid Ryegrass2003Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western AustraliaWA Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Christopher Preston, Abul Hashem
15 5251Smooth Barley2005Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum
Smooth Barley
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) sulfometuron-methyl, sulfosulfuron Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
16 5253Rigid Brome2005Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus (=B. rigidus)
Rigid Brome
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) quizalofop-ethyl Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
17 7888Wild Radish2010Raphanus raphanistrum
Wild Radish
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Auxin Mimics (O/4), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9), Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12) Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, glyphosate, imazethapyr, MCPA, metosulam, sulfometuron-methyl Stephen Powles, Michael Ashworth
18 5581Junglerice2010Echinochloa colona
Junglerice
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Stephen Powles, Todd Gaines
19 5578Rigid Brome2011Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus (=B. rigidus)
Rigid Brome
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) mesosulfuron-methyl, pyroxsulam Peter Boutsalis
20 6754Rigid Ryegrass2013Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9), PS I Electron Diversion (D/22) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
glyphosate, paraquat Peter Boutsalis, Andrew Storrie, Sally Peltzer
21 8899Longflowered veldtgrass 2014Ehrharta longiflora
Longflowered veldtgrass
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) clethodim, haloxyfop-methyl, quizalofop-ethyl Peter Boutsalis, Sally Peltzer
22 10964Red Brome2014Bromus rubens
Red Brome
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Abul Hashem
23 11030Squirreltail Fescue2014Vulpia bromoides
Squirreltail Fescue
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) simazine Stephen Powles, Michael Ashworth
24 19223Wild Radish2015Raphanus raphanistrum
Wild Radish
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Auxin Mimics (O/4), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27), Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
2,4-D, atrazine, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, fluridone, isoxaflutole, mesotrione, tembotrione Stephen Powles, Hugh Beckie, Heping Han, Qin Yu, Mechelle Owen
25 14052Coat Buttons2016Tridax procumbens
Coat Buttons
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Stephen Powles
26 17111Willow-leaved lettuce2017Lactuca saligna
Willow-leaved lettuce
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Abul Hashem
27 19216Capeweed2020Arctotheca calendula
Capeweed
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9), Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12) Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
diflufenican, glyphosate, metosulam Hugh Beckie, Michael Ashworth, Heping Han
28 19219Wild Radish2020Raphanus raphanistrum
Wild Radish
Australia
(Western Australia)
Western Australia  Auxin Mimics (O/4), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27), Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15) Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
2,4-D, dicamba, mesotrione, metsulfuron-methyl, pyroxasulfone, topramezone Hugh Beckie, Roberto Busi, Bowen Zhang
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Sunday, November 28, 2021 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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