International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP D/22 RESISTANT SMOOTH BARLEY
(Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum)


PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)

Australia, South Australia
INTRODUCTION SMOOTH BARLEY
Smooth Barley (Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In South Australia this weed first evolved resistance to Group D/22 herbicides in 1990 and infests Alfalfa, and Cereals.   Group D/22 herbicides are known as PSI Electron Diverter (Photosystem-I-electron diversion).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to diquat, and paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group D/22 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jul 01, 2004 )

Common NameSmooth Barley
SpeciesHordeum murinum ssp. glaucum
GroupPSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Herbicidesdiquat, and paraquat
LocationAustralia, South Australia
Year1990
Situation(s)Alfalfa, and Cereals
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Christopher Preston 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Christopher Preston
Paraquat resistant Hordeum glaucum was first found in an alfalfa field near Spalding, South Australia in 1990. In 1995 resistance was found in two no-till wheat fields near Avon, South Australia. In 1996 resistance was found in a second alfalfa field near Mount Bryan, South Australia. In 1999 resistance was found in an alfalfa field near Jamestown, South Australia following a survey of H. glaucum populations. A survey of alfalfa fields and adjacent crop or pasture fields in 2001 found 5 more paraquat resistant H. glaucum populations, 3 in alfalfa fields and 2 in pastures adjacent to alfalfa fields. Of 12 samples from alfalfa fields collected in the surveys, 4 proved to be resistant to paraquat.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Smooth Barley biotype with this Smooth Barley biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group D/22 resistant Smooth Barley indicate that the inheritance is determined by a one gene, semi dominant trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group D/22 resistant Smooth Barley from South Australia indicate that resistance is due to altered translocation.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group D/22 resistant Smooth Barley from South Australia please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

CHRISTOPHER PRESTON
University Of Adelaide - Waite Campus
Crc For Australian Weed Management And School Of Agriculture
Box 2146
Adelaide, 5064, South Australia
Australia
Email Christopher Preston

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in South Australia have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Christopher Preston for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Smooth Barley Globally
(Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum)
Herbicide Resistant Smooth Barley Globally
(Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Smooth Barley Globally
(Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1984 Alfalfa, and Cereals diquat, and paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
97Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucumSmooth Barley19
2 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1990 Alfalfa, and Cereals diquat, and paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
97Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucumSmooth Barley5031
3 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2000 Pastures, and Winter pulses fluazifop-P-butyl, and quizalofop-P-ethyl 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
97Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucumSmooth Barley5095
4 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2005 Wheat sulfometuron-methyl, and sulfosulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
97Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucumSmooth Barley5251
5 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2016 Around Buildings glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
97Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucumSmooth Barley17118
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