International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
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Herbicide Resistant Weeds in South Australia, Australia.
#YearSpeciesSite of ActionActivesContacts
1 389Rigid Ryegrass1982Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South AustraliaSA Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1), Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3), Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly (F4/13), Inhibition of Microtubule Organization (K2/23), Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15), Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/8) Multiple Resistance: 7 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly (F4/13)
Inhibition of Microtubule Organization (K2/23)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/8)
chlorpropham, chlorsulfuron, clomazone, diclofop-methyl, ethalfluralin, fluazifop-butyl, imazapyr, metolachlor, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, tri-allate, triasulfuron, trifluralin Christopher Preston
2 398Rigid Ryegrass1984Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South AustraliaSA Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15) Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15) metolachlor Stephen Powles
3 20Wild Oat1988Avena fatua
Wild Oat
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, tralkoxydim Christopher Preston
4 21Sterile Oat1989Avena sterilis
Sterile Oat
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-butyl, sethoxydim Christopher Preston, Andrew Storrie
5 24Oriental Mustard1990Sisymbrium orientale
Oriental Mustard
Australia
(South Australia)
South AustraliaSA Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron, imazethapyr, metosulam, metsulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron Christopher Preston
6 5031Smooth Barley1990Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum
Smooth Barley
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  PS I Electron Diversion (D/22) PS I Electron Diversion (D/22) diquat, paraquat Christopher Preston
7 16Large Crabgrass1993Digitaria sanguinalis
Large Crabgrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, imazethapyr Christopher Preston
8 26Prickly Lettuce1994Lactuca serriola
Prickly Lettuce
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron, flumetsulam, metosulam, metsulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron Christopher Preston
9 5226Rigid Ryegrass1994Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) trifluralin Christopher Preston
10 5202African Mustard1996Brassica tournefortii
African Mustard
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron, imazamox, imazapyr, sulfometuron-methyl Christopher Preston
11 1143Hare Barley1996Hordeum murinum ssp. leporinum
Hare Barley
Australia
(South Australia)
South AustraliaSouth Australia Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, quizalofop-ethyl Christopher Preston
12 1136Patersons Curse1997Echium plantagineum
Patersons Curse
Australia
(South Australia)
South AustraliaSouth Australia Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron, metosulam Christopher Preston, Abul Hashem, David Bowran
13 5034Wild Radish1998Raphanus raphanistrum
Wild Radish
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, metosulam Christopher Preston, Abul Hashem
14 5188Rigid Ryegrass1999Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Christopher Preston
15 5095Smooth Barley2000Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum
Smooth Barley
Australia
(South Australia)
South AustraliaSouth Australia Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) fluazifop-butyl, quizalofop-ethyl Christopher Preston
16 5203Hare Barley2001Hordeum murinum ssp. leporinum
Hare Barley
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  PS I Electron Diversion (D/22) PS I Electron Diversion (D/22) paraquat Christopher Preston
17 5219Perennial Wallrocket2004Diplotaxis tenuifolia
Perennial Wallrocket
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron, triasulfuron Christopher Preston
18 5241Calomba daisy2004Pentzia suffruticosa
Calomba daisy
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) metsulfuron-methyl Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
19 5252Sterile oat2005Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana
Sterile oat
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) iodosulfuron-methyl-Na Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
20 5255Crystalline Iceplant2005Mesembryanthemum crystallinum
Crystalline Iceplant
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron Christopher Preston
21 5270Oriental Mustard2005Sisymbrium orientale
Oriental Mustard
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Auxin Mimics (O/4), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
2,4-D, imazethapyr, MCPA, metosulam, metsulfuron-methyl Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
22 5364Wild Radish2006Raphanus raphanistrum
Wild Radish
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Auxin Mimics (O/4), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12) Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
2,4-D, diflufenican, MCPA, triasulfuron Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
23 5298Rigid Brome2007Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus (=B. rigidus)
Rigid Brome
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) clethodim, fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, quizalofop-ethyl, tepraloxydim Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
24 5515Rigid Ryegrass2008Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9), Inhibition of Lycopene Cyclase (F3/11) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Lycopene Cyclase (F3/11)
amitrole, glyphosate Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
25 5489Rigid Ryegrass2010Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1), PS I Electron Diversion (D/22) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
clethodim, paraquat Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
26 5510Rigid Ryegrass2010Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1), Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9), PS I Electron Diversion (D/22), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
atrazine, chlorsulfuron, clethodim, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, paraquat Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
27 5579Rigid Brome2011Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus (=B. rigidus)
Rigid Brome
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) mesosulfuron-methyl, pyroxsulam Peter Boutsalis
28 5580Ripgut Brome2011Bromus diandrus
Ripgut Brome
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) mesosulfuron-methyl, pyroxsulam Peter Boutsalis
29 5597Ripgut Brome2011Bromus diandrus
Ripgut Brome
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
30 5605Hairy Fleabane2011Conyza bonariensis
Hairy Fleabane
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
31 7837Threehorn Bedstraw2012Galium tricornutum
Threehorn Bedstraw
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) imazamox, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, pyroxsulam Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
32 10988Annual Sowthistle2015Sonchus oleraceus
Annual Sowthistle
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Auxin Mimics (O/4) Auxin Mimics (O/4) 2,4-D Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
33 10989Annual Sowthistle2015Sonchus oleraceus
Annual Sowthistle
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron Christopher Preston, Peter Boutsalis
34 11028Feather Fingergrass2015Chloris virgata
Feather Fingergrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Christopher Preston
35 15055Capeweed2015Arctotheca calendula
Capeweed
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Auxin Mimics (O/4) Auxin Mimics (O/4) 2,4-D Christopher Preston
36 17118Smooth Barley2016Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum
Smooth Barley
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Christopher Preston
37 16084Annual Bluegrass2017Poa annua
Annual Bluegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Peter Boutsalis
38 16085Annual Bluegrass2017Poa annua
Annual Bluegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) simazine Peter Boutsalis
39 16086Annual Bluegrass2017Poa annua
Annual Bluegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Unknown (Z/27) Unknown (Z/27) endothall Peter Boutsalis
40 16087Annual Bluegrass2017Poa annua
Annual Bluegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) propyzamide/pronamide Peter Boutsalis
41 16088Annual Bluegrass2017Poa annua
Annual Bluegrass
Australia
(South Australia)
South Australia  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, rimsulfuron Peter Boutsalis
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