INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE-RESISTANT WEED DATABASE

INTRODUCTION WILD OAT
Wild Oat (Avena fatua) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Washington this weed first evolved resistance to Group A/1 herbicides in 1991 and infests Wheat.   Group A/1 herbicides are known as ACCase inhibitors (Inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, quizalofop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim and they may be cross-resistant to other Group A/1 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Aug 16, 2018 )

Common NameWild Oat
SpeciesAvena fatua
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Herbicidesdiclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, quizalofop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim
LocationUnited States, Washington
Year1991
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Steven Seefeldt, and Ahmet Uludag 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Steven Seefeldt
Eastern Washington. Steve has since left us for NewZealand.

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GENERAL

Ahmet Uludag

The original population posted by Steve Seefeldt was found to be tested to diclofop-methyl.  Since then numerous wild oat populations have been found to have ACCase resistance.

Weed Technology 2008 22:142–145

Cross Resistance of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACCase) Inhibitor–Resistant Wild Oat (Avena fatua) biotypes in the Pacific Northwest Ahmet Uludag, Kee Woong Park, Joshua Cannon, and Carol A. Mallory-Smith

Seeds from five suspected acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor–resistant wild oat biotypes (R1 to R5) were collected in wheat and lentil fields in the Pacific Northwest. Based on whole plant dose–response experiments, the five resistant biotypes were 2 to 24 times more resistant to the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) herbicides (fenoxaprop, diclofop, and quizalofop) compared with the susceptible biotype. However, none of the resistant biotypes were resistant to the cyclohexanedione (CHD) herbicides, sethoxydim and clethodim. R2 was the only biotype resistant to tralkoxydim and pinoxaden, a phenylpyrazolin herbicide and an ACCase inhibitor. The R2 biotype was 35 and 16 times more resistant to tralkoxydim and pinoxaden, respectively, when compared with the susceptible biotype. The levels of resistance and crossresistance patterns varied among biotypes indicating either more than one mechanism of resistance or different resistance mutations in these wild oat biotypes. The CHD herbicides, sethoxydim and clethodim, could be used to control these resistant biotypes. Except for the R2 biotype, pinoxaden could be used to control the resistant wild oat biotypes. The resistance patterns of these wild oat biotypes are an indication of the difficulty in predicting cross-resistance among the ACCase inhibitor herbicides.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Wild Oat biotype with this Wild Oat biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A/1 resistant Wild Oat have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group A/1 resistant Wild Oat from Washington indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group A/1 resistant Wild Oat from Washington please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

STEVEN SEEFELDT
Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre
Agresearch
Universidad Nacional La Plata
Casilla De Correo 31, Cátedra De Cereales
Hamilton
New Zealand
Email Steven Seefeldt
AHMET ULUDAG
Professor
Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
Plant Protection
COMU, Ziraat Fakultesi
Bitki Koruma Bolumu, Terzioglu Yerleskesi
Canakkale, 17020, Canakkale
Turkey
Email Ahmet Uludag

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Washington have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Steven Seefeldt, and Ahmet Uludag for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Wild Oat Globally
(Avena fatua)
Herbicide Resistant Wild Oat Globally
(Avena fatua)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Wild Oat Globally
(Avena fatua)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2010 Spring Barley, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 48 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5587
2 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1985 Wheat diclofop-methyl 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat14
3 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1988 Canola, Lupins, and Wheat diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, and tralkoxydim 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat20
4 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1991 Canola, Chickpea, Faba beans, Lentils, Lupins, Spring Barley, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5
5 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2006 Chickpea, Spring Barley, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, flamprop-methyl, and mesosulfuron-methyl 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Antimicrotubule mitotic disrupter (Z/25)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat10966
6 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2018 Chickpea glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat18187
7 BelgiumBelgium 1996 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 3 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat1146
8 BrazilBrazil 2010 clodinafop-propargyl 5 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5601
9 Canada (Alberta) CanadaAlberta1989 Cereals, and Spring Barley difenzoquat, and triallate 7 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
Cell elongation inhibitors (Z/8)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat66
10 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba1990 Canola, Cropland, Spring Barley, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 7 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat50
11 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan1990 Canola, Spring Barley, and Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 7 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5041
12 Canada (Alberta) CanadaAlberta1991 Canola, and Wheat diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, and tralkoxydim 7 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat67
13 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba1994 Canola, Cropland, Spring Barley, and Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, flamprop-methyl, imazamethabenz-methyl, and rimsulfuron 7 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Antimicrotubule mitotic disrupter (Z/25)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat51
14 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan1996 Cereals, and Cropland imazamethabenz-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5072
15 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan1996 Wheat triallate 7 Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5073
16 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan1996 Canola, Lentils, Spring Barley, and Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, imazamethabenz-methyl, and triallate 7 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5074
17 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba1997 Wheat imazamethabenz-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5077
18 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba1997 Wheat triallate 7 Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5078
19 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba1997 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, flamprop-methyl, imazamethabenz-methyl, and triallate 7 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
Antimicrotubule mitotic disrupter (Z/25)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5079
20 Canada (Alberta) CanadaAlberta1998 Canola, Cereals, and Peas imazamethabenz-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5075
21 Canada (Alberta) CanadaAlberta1998 Canola, Cereals, Peas, and Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, imazamethabenz-methyl, and triallate 7 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5076
22 Canada (Quebec) CanadaQuebec2012 Wheat, and Winter barley fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and tralkoxydim 7 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat17129
23 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba2015 Spring wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, imazamethabenz-methyl, imazapyr, pyroxasulfone, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sulfentrazone, and triallate 7 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat11033
24 ChileChile 1998 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, haloxyfop-methyl, and tralkoxydim 8 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5103
25 FranceFrance 1996 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 17 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat548
26 FranceFrance 2006 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat9938
27 GermanyGermany 2009 Sugar beets cycloxydim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden 18 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat6745
28 GermanyGermany 2012 Sugar beets clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and pinoxaden 18 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5662
29 IranIran 2007 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and diclofop-methyl 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5341
30 MexicoMexico 1998 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 29 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5476
31 New ZealandNew Zealand 2014 Clover, and Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 30 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat14054
32 PolandPoland 2011 Spring Barley, and Spring wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and pinoxaden 33 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat6761
33 PolandPoland 2011 Spring Barley, and Spring wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, propoxycarbazone-sodium, and sulfometuron-methyl 33 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat6762
34 PolandPoland 2011 Spring Barley, and Spring wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, metsulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, propoxycarbazone-sodium, and sulfometuron-methyl 33 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat6763
35 South AfricaSouth Africa 1986 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, imazamox, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, sethoxydim, sulfosulfuron, and tralkoxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat392
36 SyriaSyria 2015 Faba beans, Potatoes, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 69 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat15060
37 TurkeyTurkey 2011 Wheat diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and tralkoxydim 71 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5641
38 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1994 Canola, Cereals, and Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, flamprop-M-isopropyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, imazamethabenz-methyl, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and tralkoxydim 44 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Antimicrotubule mitotic disrupter (Z/25)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat355
39 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1990 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat319
40 United States (Montana) United StatesMontana1990 Spring Barley difenzoquat, and triallate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
Cell elongation inhibitors (Z/8)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat412
41 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1990 Cropland propyzamide = pronamide 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat475
42 United States (Minnesota) United StatesMinnesota1991 Sugar beets, and Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat247
43 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota1991 Cereals, and Wheat diclofop-methyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat485
44 United States (Washington) United StatesWashington1991 Wheat diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, quizalofop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat521
45 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho1992 Cereals, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat235
46 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho1993 Cereals difenzoquat, and triallate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
Cell elongation inhibitors (Z/8)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat234
47 United States (Montana) United StatesMontana1996 Cereals imazamethabenz-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat558
48 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota1996 Wheat imazamethabenz-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat1048
49 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1996 Spring Barley, and Wheat difenzoquat 45 Cell elongation inhibitors (Z/8)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat1176
50 United States (Colorado) United StatesColorado1997 Spring Barley, and Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat1052
51 United States (Montana) United StatesMontana2002 Cropland, Sugar beets, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and tralkoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5246
52 United States (South Dakota) United StatesSouth Dakota2009 Cereals fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5637
53 United States (South Dakota) United StatesSouth Dakota2011 Cereals mesosulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5638
54 United States (South Dakota) United StatesSouth Dakota2012 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and mesosulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
28Avena fatuaWild Oat5663
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