The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.
QUIK STATS (last updated Mar 08, 2017 )
NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE
BARNYARDGRASS WITH MULTIPLE RESISTANCE TO SYNTHETIC AUXIN, ALS AND ACCASE INHIBITORS
 Capim-Arroz com Resistência Múltipla a Auxina Sintética, Inibidores de ALS e ACCase EBERHARDT, D.S., OLIVEIRA NETO, A.M.3, NOLDIN, J.A.2, and VANTI, R.M.4
ABSTRACT - The objective of this research was to confirm the resistance of a barnyardgrass biotype (Echinochloa crus-galli) to herbicides quinclorac (synthetic auxin), penoxsulam (ALS inhibitor) and cyhalofop-butyl (ACCase inhibitor). Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse located in Itajaí, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. One experiment evaluating the biotype ECH 18 (known as susceptible) and one with the ECH 141 biotype (suspected to be multiple resistant). The experimental design used was completely randomized, in a 4 x 7 factorial arrangement with four replications. The first factor was the herbicide: cyhalofopbutyl (Clincher®), penoxsulam (Ricer®), quinclorac (Facet®) and propanil (Grassaid®) and the second factor consisting of seven rates of each herbicide (0.00; 0.25; 0.50; 1; 2; 4 and 8 times the label rate). The evaluations of percentage of control, plant density per pot and dry mass of shoots were performed 35 days after treatments. The rates to control 50% and 80% and the dose to provide 50% and 80% of the weed biomass accumulation and the resistance factor were estimated based on data analysis. The initial hypothesis was confirmed; the biotype ECH 141 presented multiple resistance (synthetic auxin, ALS and ACCase inhibitor). However, the herbicide propanil controlled biotype ECH 141 adequate.
 Recebido para publicação em 17.9.2015 e aprovado em 27.11.2015.  Epagri, Estação Experimental de Itajaí-SC, Brazil, <firstname.lastname@example.org> e <email@example.com>; 3 Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas-RS; 4Agroas Agronomia Ltda. Tubarão-SC, Brazil.
CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS
Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is one of the top 15 herbicide-resistant weeds around the world that interferes with rice growth, resulting in major losses of rice yield. Thus, multi-herbicide resistance in barnyardgrass presents a major threat, with the underlying mechanisms that contribute to resistance requiring elucidation. In an attempt to characterize this multi-herbicide resistance at the proteomic level, comparative analysis of resistant and susceptible barnyardgrasses was performed using iTRAQ, both with and without quinclorac, bispyribac-sodium and penoxsulam herbicidal treatment. A total of 1342 protein species were identified from 2248 unique peptides by searching the UniProt database and conducting data analysis. Approximately 904 protein species with 4774 Gene Ontology (GO) terms were grouped into the categories of biological process, cellular component and molecular function. Among these, 688 protein species were annotated into 1583 KEGG pathways, with 980 protein species relating to metabolism and 93 relating to environmental information processing. A total of 292 protein species showed more than a 1.2-fold change in abundance in the resistant biotype relative to the susceptible biotype. Furthermore, herbicide treatment resulted in 157 protein species that showed more than a 1.2-fold change in the resistant biotype. Moreover, physiological analyses demonstrated an ecological fitness cost in the resistant biotype.
Significance: While some studies have shown a fitness cost to be associated with an altered ecological interaction, our understanding of the fitness costs associated with herbicide resistance are limited. Herein, physiological and proteomic analysis demonstrates herbicide resistance associated ecological fitness cost and potential mechanisms of herbicide-resistance in resistant biotypes of E. crus-galli. The results presented herein have revealed differences in ecological adaptation between resistant and susceptible biotypes in E. crus-galli and provide a fundamental basis enabling the development of new strategies for weed control. Lastly, this is the first large scale proteomics study to examine herbicide stress responses in different barnyardgrass biotypes.