INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE-RESISTANT WEED DATABASE

HRAC GROUP 2 (LEGACY B) RESISTANT WILD RADISH
(Raphanus raphanistrum)


Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

Brazil, Northern Paraná
INTRODUCTION WILD RADISH
Wild Radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) is a dicot weed in the Brassicaceae family.  In Brazil this weed first evolved resistance to Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides in 2013 and infests Spring Barley, and Wheat.   Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazapic, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, metsulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Mar 07, 2014 )

Common NameWild Radish
SpeciesRaphanus raphanistrum
GroupInhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Herbicideschlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazapic, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, metsulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl
LocationBrazil, Northern Paraná
Year2013
Situation(s)Spring Barley, and Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)LEANDRO OLIVEIRA DA COSTA 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

DOSE RESPONSE

LEANDRO OLIVEIRA DA COSTA
Raphanus raphanistrum Resistance to the Herbicide Metsulfuron-Methyl

COSTA, L.O. and RIZZARDI, M.A.

Planta Daninha In Press

The ALS-inhibiting herbicides, especially metsulfuron-methyl, are widely used for weed control, mainly wheat and barley in southern Brazil. Raphanus raphanistrum is a major weed of winter crops. However, in recent years, R. raphanistrum, after being treated with metsulfuron, has shown no symptoms of toxicity, possibly due to herbicide resistance. Aiming to evaluate the existence of R. raphanistrum biotypes resistant to metsulfuron, an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design with four replications. The plots consisted of pots with six plants. The treatments consisted of the interaction of resistant R. raphanistrum (biotype R) and susceptible R. raphanistrum (biotypes S) with ten doses of the herbicide (0.0; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4; 4.8; 9.6; 19.2; 38.4; 76.8 and 153.6 g i.a. ha-1). The application of the test herbicides occurred when the crop was at the stage of 3 to 4 true leaves. The variables analyzed were control and dry matter accumulation. Statistical analysis of dose-response curves was performed by non linear regression. Biotype S was susceptible to the herbicide even at doses below the recommended. Biotype R was insensitive to the herbicide obtaining values of resistance factor (F) higher than 85. The dose-response curve confirmed the existence of R. raphanistrum biotypes with high level of resistance to metsulfuron-methyl.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Wild Radish biotype with this Wild Radish biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 2 resistant Wild Radish have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Wild Radish from Brazil please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

LEANDRO OLIVEIRA DA COSTA
Doctor
Instituto Federal Farroupilha-Campus Júlio de Castilhos
Professor
São João do Barro Preto
Júlio de Castilhos, 98 130-000, Rio Grande do Sul
Brazil
Email LEANDRO OLIVEIRA DA COSTA
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Brazil have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to LEANDRO OLIVEIRA DA COSTA for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1997 Cereals, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metosulam 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish522
2 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1998 Cropland chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, and metosulam 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors ( HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5033
3 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1998 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and metosulam 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5034
4 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1999 Lupins, and Triazine-tolerant canola atrazine, and simazine 1 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish1135
5 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1999 Cereals 2,4-D 1 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5358
6 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2004 Cereals chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and triasulfuron 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5338
7 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2006 Cereals 2,4-D, diflufenican, MCPA, and triasulfuron 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors ( HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5364
8 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2009 Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, and metosulam 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7845
9 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2010 Fallow 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, glyphosate, imazethapyr, MCPA, metosulam, and sulfometuron-methyl 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors ( HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7888
10 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2011 Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D 1 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7846
11 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2013 Oats, Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D 1 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7839
12 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2015 Wheat 2,4-D, atrazine, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, fluridone, isoxaflutole, mesotrione, and tembotrione 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors ( HRAC Group 12 (Legacy F1)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase ( HRAC Group 27 (Legacy F2)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish19223
13 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2020 Wheat 2,4-D, dicamba, mesotrione, metsulfuron-methyl, pyroxasulfone, and topramezone 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase ( HRAC Group 27 (Legacy F2)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish19219
14 BrazilBrazil 2013 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazapic, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, metsulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl 5 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7895
15 South AfricaSouth Africa 1997 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, metsulfuron-methyl, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl 37 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5197
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