INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE-RESISTANT WEED DATABASE

HRAC GROUP 2 (LEGACY B) RESISTANT SMOOTH PIGWEED
(Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis))


Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

Argentina, Santa Fe, Córdoba
INTRODUCTION SMOOTH PIGWEED
Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family.  In Argentina this weed first evolved resistance to Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides in 1996 and infests Soybean.   Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to chlorimuron-ethyl, and imazethapyr and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Feb 08, 2010 )

Common NameSmooth Pigweed
SpeciesAmaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)
GroupInhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Herbicideschlorimuron-ethyl, and imazethapyr
LocationArgentina, Santa Fe, Córdoba
Year1996
Situation(s)Soybean
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Pedro Christoffoleti, Luisa Nisensohn, and Daniel Tuesca 
Edit this Case  |  Add New Case of Resistance  |  Add Note

NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Luisa Nisensohn
RESISTENCIA DE AMARANTHUS QUITENSIS H.B.K. A IMAZETAPIR Y CLORIMURÓN-ETIL (RESISTANCE OF AMARANTHUS QUITENSIS H.B.K TO IMAZETHAPYR AND CLHORIMURON-ETHYL.) DANIEL TUESCA y LUISA NISENSOHN Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, C.C. 14 (2125) Zavalla, Santa Fe. Argentina. e-mail: dtuesca@agatha.unr.edu.ar lnisen@arnet.com.ar ABSTRACT - The objective was to determine the magnitude of resistance of A. quitensis H.B.K. biotypes to imazethapyr and chlorimuron-ethyl. Weed biotypes were colected at Zavalla, General Baldissera, Marcos Juárez y Las Rosas. The herbicides were applied at 1/8x, 1/4x, 1/2x, 1x, 5x, 10x, y 20x the suggested rate. Weed mortality and reduction of biomass related with untreated plants were evaluated. Herbicides concentrations required to reduce growth by 50% (GR50) were determined. Resistance ratio (GR50 resistant/ GR50 susceptible ) was calculated to indicate the degree of resistance. Zavalla showed high susceptibility, with 1/2 of the suggested rate of both herbicides mortality reached 95%. General Baldissera was cross-resistant; with rates 20 times superior to the recommended field use rate mortality was 57,5% and 20% for imazethapyr and clhorimuron-ethyl respectively. Resistance ratios of this biotype compared with Zavalla were 165 and 246 for imazethapyr and chlorimuron-ethyl respectively. Las Rosas y Marcos Juárez were resistant to imazethapyr but showed high susceptibility to chlorimuron-ethyl. The resistance patterns showed by the biotypes could be associated with diferences in the selection pressure at each location. Index terms: cross-resistance, imidazolinone, sulfonylurea, weeds, herbicides, biotypes. Published in: Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Brasilia, v. 36, n. 4 p. 601-606, 2001.

Edit this Note  |  Add New Note
 

ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Smooth Pigweed biotype with this Smooth Pigweed biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 2 resistant Smooth Pigweed have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Smooth Pigweed from Argentina indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Smooth Pigweed from Argentina please update the database.
 
Edit Case  |  Add Note  |  Add Article  |  Add New Case  |  

CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

PEDRO CHRISTOFFOLETI
Associate Professor III
Universidade de Sao Paulo
Crop Science Department
ESALQ - USP - LPV - Av. Padua Dias 11 - C. Postal 09
Piracicaba, 13418-900, São Paulo
Brazil
Email Pedro Christoffoleti
Web   : Web Site Link
LUISA NISENSOHN
Docente Cátedra De Malezas
Universidad Nacional De Rosario, Argentina
Fac. Ciencias Agrarias
Malezas
1991 Upper Buford Cir
Zavalla, 2125, Santa Fe
Argentina
Email Luisa Nisensohn
Web   : Web Site Link
DANIEL TUESCA
Docente - Investigador
Universidad Nacional De Rosario, Argentina
Cátedra De Malezas
Facultad De Ciencias Agrarias
Campo Experimental J.F. Villarino. C.C 14
Zavalla, 2125, Santa Fe
Argentina
Email Daniel Tuesca
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Argentina have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Pedro Christoffoleti, Luisa Nisensohn, and Daniel Tuesca for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Smooth Pigweed Globally
(Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis))
Herbicide Resistant Smooth Pigweed Globally
(Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis))
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Smooth Pigweed Globally
(Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis))
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 1996 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and imazethapyr 48 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5099
2 ArgentinaArgentina 2013 Soybean glyphosate 48 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed6757
3 ArgentinaArgentina 2014 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate, and imazethapyr 48 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed9948
4 ArgentinaArgentina 2016 Soybean 2,4-D, dicamba, and glyphosate 48 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed17107
5 ArgentinaArgentina 2016 Soybean 2,4-D, and dicamba 48 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed17108
6 BoliviaBolivia 2002 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, imazamox, imazethapyr, and oxasulfuron 4 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5242
7 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Soybean fomesafen, lactofen, and sulfentrazone 4 Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase ( HRAC Group 14 (Legacy E)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5411
8 BrazilBrazil 2018 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed18184
9 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario2004 Corn (maize) bentazon, and bromoxynil 7 PSII inhibitors - Histidine 215 Binders ( HRAC Group 6 (Legacy C3)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5472
10 FranceFrance 1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 17 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed453
11 IsraelIsrael 1986 Cropland atrazine 23 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed101
12 ItalyItaly 1978 Corn (maize) atrazine 24 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed114
13 South AfricaSouth Africa 1993 Corn (maize) atrazine 37 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed193
14 SpainSpain 1985 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed175
15 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1982 Vegetables simazine 41 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed198
16 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1972 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed429
17 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia1976 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed273
18 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware1977 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed492
19 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed262
20 United States (Pennsylvania) United StatesPennsylvania1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed264
21 United States (New Jersey) United StatesNew Jersey1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed494
22 United States (New York) United StatesNew York1980 Corn (maize) atrazine, metribuzin, and simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5225
23 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin1985 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed418
24 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky1987 Corn (maize) atrazine, and simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed489
25 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky1992 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, flumetsulam, imazaquin, imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed490
26 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois1993 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed236
27 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia1994 Corn (maize), and Soybean imazaquin, and imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed278
28 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois1998 Soybean imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed7859
29 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2000 Vegetables imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5160
30 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2000 Corn (maize) atrazine, imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed7860
31 United States (Ohio) United StatesOhio2001 Soybean flumetsulam, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5233
32 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan2002 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, imazamox, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5170
Literature about Similar Cases

Page size:
select
Page: of 19
Items 1 to 5 of 93

Page size:
select
Page: of 19
Items 1 to 5 of 93

PERMISSION MUST BE OBTAINED FIRST if you intend to base a significant portion of a scientific paper on data derived from this site. Citation:
Heap, I.  The International Herbicide-Resistant Weed Database.  Online.  Wednesday, December 8, 2021 .  Available  www.weedscience.org Copyright © 1993- 2021 WeedScience.org All rights reserved. Fair use of this material is encouraged. Proper citation is requested.