International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
(Urtica urens)

Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)

Australia, Victoria
Burning Nettle (Urtica urens) is a dicot weed in the Urticaceae family.  In Victoria this weed first evolved resistance to Group C1/5 herbicides in 2002 and infests Vegetables.   Group C1/5 herbicides are known as Photosystem II inhibitors (Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to atrazine, prometryn, and simazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group C1/5 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Jul 23, 2003 )

Common NameBurning Nettle
SpeciesUrtica urens
GroupPhotosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
Herbicidesatrazine, prometryn, and simazine
LocationAustralia, Victoria
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Christopher Preston 
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Christopher Preston
The resistance occurred in a celery crop after 26 years of prometryn use.

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Christopher Preston
Target site resistance. This biotype has > 100 fold resistance to atrazine and simazine.

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Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Burning Nettle biotype with this Burning Nettle biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on Group C1/5 resistant Burning Nettle have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group C1/5 resistant Burning Nettle from Victoria indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Relative Fitness

Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production.  There is no record in this database referring specifically to fitness studies on Group C1/5 resistant Burning Nettle from Victoria.
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University Of Adelaide - Waite Campus
Crc For Australian Weed Management And School Of Agriculture
Box 2146
Adelaide, 5064, South Australia
Email Christopher Preston


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Victoria have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Christopher Preston for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Burning Nettle Globally
(Urtica urens)
Herbicide Resistant Burning Nettle Globally
(Urtica urens)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Burning Nettle Globally
(Urtica urens)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2002 Vegetables atrazine, prometryn, and simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
222Urtica urensBurning Nettle5190
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