INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE-RESISTANT WEED DATABASE

HRAC GROUP 2 (LEGACY B) RESISTANT LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
(Phalaris minor)


Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

India, Haryana
INTRODUCTION LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
Little seed Canary grass (Phalaris minor) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In India this weed first evolved resistance to Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides in 2013 and infests Wheat.   Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and mesosulfuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 07, 2014 )

Common NameLittle seed Canary grass
SpeciesPhalaris minor
GroupInhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Herbicidesiodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and mesosulfuron-methyl
LocationIndia, Haryana
Year2013
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Samunder Singh 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Samunder Singh
Phalaris minor resistance is getting serious with full circle of multiple resistances to herbicides of different MOA starting from isoproturon to diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop, clodinafop, sulfosulfuron, pinoxaden and premix of mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron (Atlantis). Both target site and enhanced metabolism are recorded in different populations of Phalaris minor from Haryana. There is no recommended herbicide which can provide effective control of all resistant populations.  PRE (pendimethalin) followed by POE (ACCase/ALS) and tank or premix using metribuzin is providing some relief, but again there is regeneration in plants treated with metribuzin. Pyroxasulfone has been found effective against multiple herbicide resistant populations of P. minor; its field efficacy will depend on its large scale field use after recommendation/availability to the farmers.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Little seed Canary grass biotype with this Little seed Canary grass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 2 resistant Little seed Canary grass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Little seed Canary grass from India please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

SAMUNDER SINGH
Prof. Weed Science
CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Agronomy
CCS HAU Hisar
Hisar, 125004
India
Email Samunder Singh
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in India have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Samunder Singh for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2012 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl 1 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7838
2 IndiaIndia 1991 Wheat isoproturon 21 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass222
3 IndiaIndia 1994 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 21 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7815
4 IndiaIndia 2006 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 21 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5324
5 IndiaIndia 2013 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and mesosulfuron-methyl 21 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7816
6 IranIran 2004 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim 79 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5377
7 IsraelIsrael 1993 Wheat fenoxaprop-ethyl 23 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass111
8 MexicoMexico 1996 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-butyl, pinoxaden, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 29 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass478
9 PakistanPakistan 2015 Wheat fenoxaprop-ethyl 86 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass15074
10 South AfricaSouth Africa 1999 Pastures, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, mesosulfuron-methyl, propaquizafop, quizalofop-ethyl, and sulfosulfuron 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5194
11 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2001 Onions clethodim, fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-butyl, and sethoxydim 45 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5163
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