International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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HRAC GROUP 9 (LEGACY G) RESISTANT SUMATRAN FLEABANE
(Conyza sumatrensis)


Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)

Greece
INTRODUCTION SUMATRAN FLEABANE
Sumatran Fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis) is a dicot weed in the Asteraceae family.  In Greece this weed first evolved resistance to Group 9 (Legacy G) herbicides in 2012 and infests Grapes, Olive, and Orchards.   Group 9 (Legacy G) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (Inhibition of EPSP synthase).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 9 (Legacy G) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 04, 2019 )

Common NameSumatran Fleabane
SpeciesConyza sumatrensis
GroupInhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
Herbicidesglyphosate
LocationGreece
Year2012
Situation(s)Grapes, Olive, and Orchards
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Demos Chachalis, and Ilias Travlos 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Ilias Eleftherohorinos

Glyphosate resistance of molecularly identified Conyza albida and Conyza bonariensis populations.

Philippos N. Mylonas , Costas N. Giannopolitis, Panagiotis G. Efthimiadis, Giorgos C. Menexes, Panagiotis B. Madesis, Ilias G. Eleftherohorinos

Crop Protection 65 (2014) 207-215

In the initial screening, 18 out of 32 Conyza albida and 7 out of 28 Conyza bonariensis populations, sampled from main perennial crop regions of central and southern Greece, were found to be resistant to glyphosate. The level of resistance determined in dose—response experiments with representative populations of the two species was found to range from 7.7 to 37.3 for C. albida and from 3.4 to 7.8 for C. bonariensis. The comparison of the resistant and susceptible C. albida and C. bonariensis EPSPS gene sequences indicated that possess single nucleotide changes compared to Conyza canadensis EPSPS gene, but none of these changes is located at the position 106 that has been reported to confer resistance to glyphosate. Finally, the cpDNA sequence comparison analysis used for the most resistant population of each species and the respective susceptible counterparts was found to be a reliable tool for discrimi­nation of conventionally classified C. albida and C. bonariensis plants that are morphologically similar. This is the first report for molecular identification of Conyza species.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Sumatran Fleabane biotype with this Sumatran Fleabane biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 9 resistant Sumatran Fleabane have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group 9 (Legacy G) resistant Sumatran Fleabane from Greece indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 9 (Legacy G) resistant Sumatran Fleabane from Greece please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

DEMOS CHACHALIS
Weed Science Researcher
Benaki Phytopathological Institute
Laboratory of Chemical Weed Management
37 First Avenue
Athens, 145 61
Greece
Email Demos Chachalis
Web   : Web Site Link
ILIAS TRAVLOS
Assistant Professor
Agricultural University Of Athens
Laboratory Of Agronomy
Faculty Of Crop Science
75, Iera Odos Str.
Athens, GR11855, Athens
Greece
Email Ilias Travlos
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Greece have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Demos Chachalis, and Ilias Travlos for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Sumatran Fleabane Globally
(Conyza sumatrensis)
Herbicide Resistant Sumatran Fleabane Globally
(Conyza sumatrensis)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Sumatran Fleabane Globally
(Conyza sumatrensis)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2018 Fallow, and Wheat paraquat 1 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane17148
2 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2018 Fallow glyphosate 1 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane18161
3 BrazilBrazil 2010 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 5 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane5577
4 BrazilBrazil 2011 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl 5 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane5647
5 BrazilBrazil 2011 Corn (maize), and Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane5648
6 BrazilBrazil 2016 Soybean paraquat 5 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane16082
7 BrazilBrazil 2017 Soybean saflufenacil 5 Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane17099
8 BrazilBrazil 2017 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, glyphosate, and paraquat 5 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane17102
9 BrazilBrazil 2017 Soybean 2,4-D, diuron, glyphosate, paraquat, and saflufenacil 5 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane17135
10 FranceFrance 2010 Grapes glyphosate 17 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane9932
11 FranceFrance 2016 Grapes flazasulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, mesosulfuron-methyl, and penoxsulam 17 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane17114
12 FranceFrance 2016 Grapes flazasulfuron, glyphosate, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, mesosulfuron-methyl, and penoxsulam 17 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane17115
13 GreeceGreece 2012 Grapes, Olive, and Orchards glyphosate 19 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane5691
14 JapanJapan 1986 Mulberry, Orchards, and Roadsides diquat, and paraquat 25 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane126
15 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane138
16 ParaguayParaguay 2017 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, glyphosate, and paraquat 46 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane18153
17 SpainSpain 2009 Orchards glyphosate 38 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane5481
18 Sri LankaSri Lanka 1998 Tea paraquat 39 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane1184
19 TaiwanTaiwan 1980 Cropland, Railways, and Roadsides paraquat 42 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane214
20 TurkeyTurkey 2019 Peaches glyphosate 71 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
65Conyza sumatrensisSumatran Fleabane18164
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