International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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(Alopecurus japonicus)

PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)

China, Sichuan Province
Japanese Foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In China this weed first evolved resistance to Group D/22 herbicides in 2010 and infests Unspecified.   Group D/22 herbicides are known as PSI Electron Diverter (Photosystem-I-electron diversion).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group D/22 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Jun 10, 2012 )

Common NameJapanese Foxtail
SpeciesAlopecurus japonicus
GroupPSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
LocationChina, Sichuan Province
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Xuegang Peng 
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Confirmation Tests

Field trials comparing a known susceptible Japanese Foxtail biotype with this Japanese Foxtail biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on Group D/22 resistant Japanese Foxtail indicate that the inheritance is determined by a nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group D/22 resistant Japanese Foxtail from China please update the database.
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Research Associate
Qingdao kingagroot Ltd.
Research institute of maligant weeds
Email Xuegang Peng


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in China have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Xuegang Peng for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Japanese Foxtail Globally
(Alopecurus japonicus)
Herbicide Resistant Japanese Foxtail Globally
(Alopecurus japonicus)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Japanese Foxtail Globally
(Alopecurus japonicus)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ChinaChina 1990 Cereals, and Wheat chlorotoluron 9 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
5Alopecurus japonicusJapanese Foxtail68
2 ChinaChina 2007 Canola, and Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, haloxyfop-methyl, and pinoxaden 9 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
5Alopecurus japonicusJapanese Foxtail5608
3 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified paraquat 9 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
5Alopecurus japonicusJapanese Foxtail5649
4 ChinaChina 2014 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, mesosulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, pyribenzoxim, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 9 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
5Alopecurus japonicusJapanese Foxtail10955
Literature about Similar Cases

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