International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT WILD MUSTARD
(Sinapis arvensis)


Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)

Turkey
INTRODUCTION WILD MUSTARD
Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis) is a dicot weed in the Brassicaceae family.  In Turkey this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 2 herbicide sites of action) in 2008 and infests Wheat.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups B/2, and O/4.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to dicamba, propoxycarbazone-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups B/2, and O/4.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jul 17, 2015 )

Common NameWild Mustard
SpeciesSinapis arvensis
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
Herbicidesdicamba, propoxycarbazone-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl
LocationTurkey
Year2008
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Çigdem Melike Avci, and F. Nezihi Uygur 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Project Title : Researches on Sulfonylurea Herbicide Resistance in Wild Mustard Sinapis arvensis L. in Wheat Fields in The Marmara

Region of Turkey Start /End Date : 2003-2007

Supporting Body : GDAR

Leader : Muhamet TOPUZ

Co-researchers : Prof. Dr. Yıldız NEMLİ

Summary : Wheat is an important crop for Marmara Region of Turkey. In wheat fields besides other weeds, wild mustard is also frequent and important. In wheat growing areas wild mustard is controled chemically mainly by 2,4-D and sulfonylurea herbicides. It is well known that heavy usage of sulfonylurea herbicides causes herbicide resistance. In Marmara Region wheat is grown as a monoculture or in rotation with vegetables and sunflower where sulfonylurea usage is also common. With this study it was determined that wild mustard developed resistance to sulfonylurea herbicide chlorsulfuron and this is the first report in Turkey of a broad-leaved weed species, resistant to ALS inhibitor,resulting from the use of sulfonylureas. Chlorsulfuron resistant wild mustard populations were tested with some other sulfonylurea herbicides such as imazamethabenz-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, and trifensulfuron, for cross-resistance and atrazin and 2,4-D for multiple resistance. Chlorsulfuron resistant populations such as KNF3, KNF4 and MRS6 were found crossresistant to trifensulfuron, while they were susceptible to all other applied herbicides. In the management of chlorsulfuron resistant wild mustard in wheat areas it was concluded that, herbicides such as 2,4-D, imazamethabenz-methyl, and metsulfuron-methyl can be recommended as a chemical control alternatives. Herbicide resistant and susceptible wild mustard populations were compared for germination and fittness patterns with aim to obtain information related to the management of resistance in farmers conditions. Greenhouse, laboratory and temperature controled growth chamber studies showed that resistant populations are germinating in high rations compared to susceptible ones. Molecular studies were conducted with aim to determine the molecular basis of the mechanism of resistance. With protein studies total, membrane and soluble proteins extracted from seed, leaf and rosette stages of wild mustard resistant and susceptible populations were compared on proteom level. A significant difference between seed membrane proteins of wild mustard resistant and susceptible populatıons were found. DNA studies were conducted as partial ALS gene sequence of wild mustard resistant and susceptible populations with aim to find the points of mutations being due to protein change and resistance.The multiple allighment of sequenced ALS of resistant and susceptible wild mustard showed that there are point mutations but not in pro197 and trp 574 which are normally points where mutations results in amino asit changes. Enzyme assays showed that in chlorsulfuron resistant populations the ALS enzyme was not inhibited and that altered target site is the reason for wild mustard resistance. It was concluded that with full ALS gene sequence the mutation or mutatıons points can be found.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Wild Mustard biotype with this Wild Mustard biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B, O/2, 4 resistant Wild Mustard have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Wild Mustard from Turkey indicate that resistance is due to unknown, and an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Wild Mustard from Turkey please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ÇIGDEM MELIKE AVCI
Msc.
Cukurova University
Department Of Plant Protection
Department Of Plant Protection
Agriculturel Faculty, Cukurova University
Adana, 01330
Turkey
Email Çigdem Melike Avci
F. NEZIHI UYGUR
Prof.dr.
Cukurova University
Depart. Of Plant Protection
Cukurova University
Agricultural Faculty, Depart. Of Plant Protection
Adana, 01330
Turkey
Email F. Nezihi Uygur

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Turkey have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Çigdem Melike Avci, and F. Nezihi Uygur for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Wild Mustard Globally
(Sinapis arvensis)
Herbicide Resistant Wild Mustard Globally
(Sinapis arvensis)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Wild Mustard Globally
(Sinapis arvensis)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1996 Wheat chlorsulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard1139
2 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario1983 Corn (maize) atrazine 7 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard5065
3 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba1990 Cropland, Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D, dicamba, dichlorprop, MCPA, mecoprop, and picloram 7 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard55
4 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba1992 Canola, Cropland, Spring Barley, and Wheat ethametsulfuron-methyl, and metsulfuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard54
5 Canada (Alberta) CanadaAlberta1993 Canola, and Spring Barley ethametsulfuron-methyl, and metsulfuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard5036
6 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba1994 Cropland, Lentils, and Wheat metribuzin 7 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard56
7 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan2002 Canola, and Cereals ethametsulfuron-methyl, imazethapyr, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard5243
8 IranIran 2009 Winter wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, metsulfuron-methyl, sulfosulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl 79 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard5540
9 ItalyItaly 2006 Durum wheat florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and tribenuron-methyl 24 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard5677
10 SpainSpain 2011 Cereals iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and tribenuron-methyl 38 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard5591
11 TurkeyTurkey 2001 Wheat chlorsulfuron 71 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard5164
12 TurkeyTurkey 2008 Wheat dicamba, propoxycarbazone-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl 71 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard5405
13 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota1999 Soybean cloransulam-methyl, imazethapyr, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
158Sinapis arvensisWild Mustard1193
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