International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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(Phalaris paradoxa)

ACCase inhibitors (A/1)

Syria, Aleppo
Hood Canarygrass (Phalaris paradoxa) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Syria this weed first evolved resistance to Group A/1 herbicides in 2015 and infests Faba beans, Potatoes, and Wheat.   Group A/1 herbicides are known as ACCase inhibitors (Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group A/1 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Dec 18, 2016 )

Common NameHood Canarygrass
SpeciesPhalaris paradoxa
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Herbicidesclodinafop-propargyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl
LocationSyria, Aleppo
Situation(s)Faba beans, Potatoes, and Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Antoine Shomar 
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Antoine Shomar

In: Agriculture & Forestry, Vol. 62 Issue 1: 117-124, 2015, Podgorica
DOI: 10.17707/AgricultForest.62.1.14


It is common to say that weeds in Syria have developed resistance to herbicides, but this needs to be confirmed by research studies which are rare in the area. This study is run to describe and diagnose those weeds, and to monitor their nature and allocate their distribution in the Quaik river area in the southwestern part of Aleppo city in Syria. Seeds of suspected resistant grasses have been collected during the 2010 summer from Al-Eis, Al-Hadher and Banes, which were theoretically identified as resistant biotype to (ACCase) herbicides. In addition to seeds of grasses collected from ICARDA Tel Hadya station which were expected as sensitive biotype, taking into account that the seeds were preserved properly for the 2011/2012 season. In this experiment four herbicides have been used, two ACCase inhibitors, Ralon super (fenoxaprop-p-ethyl) and Topik (clodinafobpropargyl), the other two ALS inhibitors, Atlantis (mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron) and Pallas (pyroxsulam). The results showed that, the short spike canarygrass (Phalaris brachystachys L.) was the most risky in this area which have developed resistance to the (ACCase) in all locations including Tel Hadya station, the hood canarygrass (Phalaris paradoxa L.) came second in its resistance shown to the (ACCase) at all locations except Tel Hadya station. The wild oat (Avena fatua L.) came third, the results shown developed resistance to the (ACCase) in two locations Al-Hadher and Banes, sensitive in Tel Hadya station, while the results at Al-Eis were uncertain.

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Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Hood Canarygrass biotype with this Hood Canarygrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on Group A/1 resistant Hood Canarygrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group A/1 resistant Hood Canarygrass from Syria please update the database.
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Weed Scientist
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
Area 4, Ebn Tufail Avenue
Aleppo, Aleppo
Email Antoine Shomar


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Syria have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Antoine Shomar for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Hood Canarygrass Globally
(Phalaris paradoxa)
Herbicide Resistant Hood Canarygrass Globally
(Phalaris paradoxa)
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Herbicide Resistant Hood Canarygrass Globally
(Phalaris paradoxa)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1997 Wheat, and Winter pulses fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass1137
2 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2012 Spring Barley, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and mesosulfuron-methyl 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass7840
3 IranIran 2007 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass5342
4 IsraelIsrael 1979 Railways, and Roadsides atrazine 23 Photosystem II- Serine 264 Binders (C1/5)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass96
5 IsraelIsrael 2004 Peas, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, and tralkoxydim 23 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass5299
6 ItalyItaly 1998 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden, and sethoxydim 24 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass5108
7 MexicoMexico 1996 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim 29 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass5479
8 SyriaSyria 2015 Faba beans, Potatoes, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 69 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass15059
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