International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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HRAC GROUP 5 (LEGACY C1 C2) RESISTANT SMOOTH PIGWEED
(Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis))


PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

Italy
INTRODUCTION SMOOTH PIGWEED
Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family.  In Italy this weed first evolved resistance to Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides in 1978 and infests Corn (maize).   Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides are known as PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (Inhbition of Photosynthesis at PSll - Serine 264 Binders ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to atrazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated May 08, 2014 )

Common NameSmooth Pigweed
SpeciesAmaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)
GroupPSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Herbicidesatrazine
LocationItaly
Year1978
Situation(s)Corn (maize)
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Maurizio Sattin, and Giuseppe Zanin 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Many provinces.

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GENERAL

I have taken the date for the first occurrence (1984) from Homer LeBaron's 1992 survey. The confirmation comes from V. Lazzari.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Smooth Pigweed biotype with this Smooth Pigweed biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 5 resistant Smooth Pigweed have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) resistant Smooth Pigweed from Italy please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

MAURIZIO SATTIN
Senior Weed Scientist
Italian National Research Council (cnr)
IBAF - Weed Science Unit
Viale dell'Università 16
Legnaro, 35020, Padova
Italy
Email Maurizio Sattin
GIUSEPPE ZANIN
Senior Weed Scientist
Univ. Di Padova
Dip. Agronomia Ambientale E Produzione Vegetali
809 Mace Blvd
Legnaro, 35020, Padova
Italy
Email Giuseppe Zanin

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Italy have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Maurizio Sattin, and Giuseppe Zanin for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Smooth Pigweed Globally
(Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis))
Herbicide Resistant Smooth Pigweed Globally
(Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis))
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Smooth Pigweed Globally
(Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis))
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 1996 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and imazethapyr 48 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5099
2 ArgentinaArgentina 2013 Soybean glyphosate 48 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed6757
3 ArgentinaArgentina 2014 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate, and imazethapyr 48 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed9948
4 ArgentinaArgentina 2016 Soybean 2,4-D, dicamba, and glyphosate 48 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed17107
5 ArgentinaArgentina 2016 Soybean 2,4-D, and dicamba 48 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed17108
6 BoliviaBolivia 2002 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, imazamox, imazethapyr, and oxasulfuron 4 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5242
7 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Soybean fomesafen, lactofen, and sulfentrazone 4 Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5411
8 BrazilBrazil 2018 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed18184
9 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario2004 Corn (maize) bentazon, and bromoxynil 7 PSII inhibitors - Histidine 215 Binders (C3/6)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5472
10 FranceFrance 1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 17 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed453
11 IsraelIsrael 1986 Cropland atrazine 23 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed101
12 ItalyItaly 1978 Corn (maize) atrazine 24 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed114
13 South AfricaSouth Africa 1993 Corn (maize) atrazine 37 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed193
14 SpainSpain 1985 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed175
15 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1982 Vegetables simazine 41 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed198
16 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1972 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed429
17 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia1976 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed273
18 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware1977 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed492
19 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed262
20 United States (Pennsylvania) United StatesPennsylvania1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed264
21 United States (New Jersey) United StatesNew Jersey1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed494
22 United States (New York) United StatesNew York1980 Corn (maize) atrazine, metribuzin, and simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5225
23 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin1985 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed418
24 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky1987 Corn (maize) atrazine, and simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed489
25 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky1992 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, flumetsulam, imazaquin, imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed490
26 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois1993 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed236
27 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia1994 Corn (maize), and Soybean imazaquin, and imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed278
28 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois1998 Soybean imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed7859
29 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2000 Vegetables imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5160
30 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2000 Corn (maize) atrazine, imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed7860
31 United States (Ohio) United StatesOhio2001 Soybean flumetsulam, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5233
32 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan2002 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, imazamox, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
12Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)Smooth Pigweed5170
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