International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT SAWAH FLOWERING RUSH
(Limnocharis flava)


Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)

Malaysia
INTRODUCTION SAWAH FLOWERING RUSH
Sawah Flowering Rush (Limnocharis flava) is a monocot weed in the Limnocharitaceae family.  In Malaysia this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 2 herbicide sites of action) in 1998 and infests Rice.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups B/2, and O/4.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to 2,4-D, and bensulfuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups B/2, and O/4.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameSawah Flowering Rush
SpeciesLimnocharis flava
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
Herbicides2,4-D, and bensulfuron-methyl
LocationMalaysia
Year1998
Situation(s)Rice
Contributors - (Alphabetically)M. Azmi 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

M. Azmi
Seberang Perai and Seberang Perak rice areas

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GENERAL

M. Azmi
Nakayama, S. Azmi, M. and Ruslan, A. G. (1999). Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau resistant to 2,4-D and bensulfuron methyl. In The Management of Biotic Agents in Direct Seeded Rice in Malaysia. MARDI/MADA/JIRCAS Study Report. pp. 129-140. Paku rawan = Malay name of Limnocharis flava.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Sawah Flowering Rush biotype with this Sawah Flowering Rush biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B, O/2, 4 resistant Sawah Flowering Rush have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Sawah Flowering Rush from Malaysia please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

M. AZMI
Malaysian Agricultural Rice Research Institute
108 Sirius Place
Bertam Kepala Betas, 13200, Penang
Malaysia

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Malaysia have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to M. Azmi for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Sawah Flowering Rush Globally
(Limnocharis flava)
Herbicide Resistant Sawah Flowering Rush Globally
(Limnocharis flava)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Sawah Flowering Rush Globally
(Limnocharis flava)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 IndonesiaIndonesia 1995 Rice 2,4-D 22 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
104Limnocharis flavaSawah Flowering Rush93
2 MalaysiaMalaysia 1998 Rice 2,4-D, and bensulfuron-methyl 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
104Limnocharis flavaSawah Flowering Rush1131
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Tuesday, August 20, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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