International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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HRAC GROUP 2 (LEGACY B) RESISTANT JOHNSONGRASS
(Sorghum halepense)


Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

Spain
INTRODUCTION JOHNSONGRASS
Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Spain this weed first evolved resistance to Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides in 2015 and infests Corn (maize).   Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to nicosulfuron and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jun 29, 2015 )

Common NameJohnsongrass
SpeciesSorghum halepense
GroupInhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Herbicidesnicosulfuron
LocationSpain
Year2015
Situation(s)Corn (maize)
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Jose María Montull , and Andreu Taberner 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

MECHANISM

Andreu Taberner

Mechanism: ALS mutation in TRP574 position.

Four fields confirmed in laboratory tets and semifield trials. Almost 25 fields reported but not confirmed. > 100 ha.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Johnsongrass biotype with this Johnsongrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 2 resistant Johnsongrass indicate that the inheritance is determined by a one gene, nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Johnsongrass from Spain indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Johnsongrass from Spain please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JOSE MARÍA MONTULL
Universitat de Lleida. Agrotecnio
Rovira Roure
191
Lleida, Catalonia
Spain
Email Jose María Montull
ANDREU TABERNER
University of Lleida
Secció De Malherbologia
Servicio Proteccisn Vegetales
PO Box 619
Lleida, 25198, Catalonia
Spain
Email Andreu Taberner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Spain have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Jose María Montull , and Andreu Taberner for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Johnsongrass Globally
(Sorghum halepense)
Herbicide Resistant Johnsongrass Globally
(Sorghum halepense)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Johnsongrass Globally
(Sorghum halepense)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2005 Soybean glyphosate 48 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5271
2 ArgentinaArgentina 2015 Soybean haloxyfop-methyl 48 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass10979
3 ArgentinaArgentina 2015 Soybean clethodim, glyphosate, and haloxyfop-methyl 48 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass10991
4 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2019 Fallow glyphosate 1 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass18193
5 ChileChile 2009 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 8 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5693
6 GreeceGreece 2005 Cotton propaquizafop, and quizalofop-ethyl 19 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5393
7 HungaryHungary 2015 Corn (maize), and Fallow foramsulfuron, and nicosulfuron 20 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass17119
8 IsraelIsrael 2006 Carrots, Cotton, Onions, and Peanut (groundnut) clethodim, fluazifop-butyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 23 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5301
9 IsraelIsrael 2017 Cotton, and Watermelon rimsulfuron 23 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass18159
10 ItalyItaly 2005 Soybean, and Tomatoes fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, propaquizafop, and quizalofop-ethyl 24 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5354
11 ItalyItaly 2007 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 24 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass8905
12 MexicoMexico 2009 Corn (maize) foramsulfuron, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl, and rimsulfuron 29 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5475
13 SerbiaSerbia 2014 Corn (maize) imazamox, nicosulfuron, propoxycarbazone-Na, pyroxsulam, and rimsulfuron 245 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass15065
14 SerbiaSerbia 2017 Soybean fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, propaquizafop, and quizalofop-ethyl 245 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass17146
15 SerbiaSerbia 2018 Soybean fluazifop-butyl, and nicosulfuron 245 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass20225
16 SpainSpain 2015 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 38 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass11000
17 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1991 Cotton, and Cropland fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-butyl, and quizalofop-ethyl 45 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass250
18 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky1991 Soybean fluazifop-butyl 45 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass488
19 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1992 Cotton pendimethalin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass328
20 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1995 Cotton, and Soybean fluazifop-butyl, and quizalofop-ethyl 45 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass1106
21 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia1995 Soybean sethoxydim 45 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass1108
22 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana1997 Cotton clethodim, and fluazifop-butyl 45 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass1044
23 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas2000 Corn (maize) imazethapyr, and nicosulfuron 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5091
24 United States (West Virginia) United StatesWest Virginia2004 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass7775
25 United States (Indiana) United StatesIndiana2005 Corn (maize), and Soybean nicosulfuron 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5282
26 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky2006 Corn (maize) foramsulfuron, nicosulfuron, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass7880
27 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2007 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5344
28 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2008 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5558
29 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2010 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5522
30 VenezuelaVenezuela 2010 Corn (maize) foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and nicosulfuron 80 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
166Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrass5553
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