International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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Status of Herbicide Resistance in Arkansas - Jason Norsworthy : January, 2014

Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth is the number one threat to row crop production throughout Arkansas. At present, all row crop production counties in the state have Palmer amaranth populations with resistance to glyphosate and the ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and these multiple-resistant biotypes are common along roadsides based on recent surveys. Additionally, barnyardgrass, the number one weed of rice continues to evolve resistance to a wide array of herbicides, including propanil, quinclorac, clomazone, and several ALS inhibitors. Based on recent surveys approximately 50% of rice fields in Arkansas have barnyardgrass populations having resistance to propanil, and quinclorac resistance exists in about 25% of all fields. Most often, barnyardgrass populations having resistance to quinclorac likewise exhibit multiple resistance to propanil (about 20% samples tested).

Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Arkansas, United States.
#YearSpeciesSite of ActionActivesContacts
1 400Goosegrass1989Eleusine indica
Goosegrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) trifluralin Ronald Talbert : Retired, Ford Baldwin
2 404Common cocklebur1989Xanthium strumarium
Common cocklebur
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17) Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17) MSMA Ronald Talbert : Retired, Ford Baldwin
3 399Barnyardgrass1990Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
Barnyardgrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7) PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7) propanil Ronald Talbert : Retired, Ford Baldwin
4 403Palmer Amaranth1994Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorimuron-ethyl, diclosulam, imazaquin, imazethapyr, pyrithiobac-sodium Ronald Talbert : Retired, Nilda R. Burgos
5 401Common cocklebur1995Xanthium strumarium
Common cocklebur
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) imazaquin Ronald Talbert : Retired, Ford Baldwin
6 402Redroot Pigweed1995Amaranthus retroflexus
Redroot Pigweed
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) imazaquin Ronald Talbert : Retired, Ford Baldwin
7 1097Italian Ryegrass1995Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl Nilda R. Burgos, Robert Scott
8 1188Barnyardgrass1999Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
Barnyardgrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR Auxin Mimics (O/4), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
propanil, quinclorac Ford Baldwin, Nilda R. Burgos
9 13046Red Rice2002Oryza sativa var. sylvatica
Red Rice
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) imazamox, imazapyr, imazaquin, imazethapyr, pyrithiobac-sodium Nilda R. Burgos
10 5187Horseweed2003Conyza canadensis
Horseweed
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Ronald Talbert : Retired
11 5399Italian Ryegrass2003Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorsulfuron, imazamox, mesosulfuron-methyl, sulfometuron-methyl Nilda R. Burgos, Robert Scott
12 5261Common Ragweed2004Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Common Ragweed
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Nilda R. Burgos
13 5409Italian Ryegrass2005Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasArkansas Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden Nilda R. Burgos, Robert Scott
14 5345Giant Ragweed2005Ambrosia trifida
Giant Ragweed
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Robert Scott, Jason Norsworthy
15 5296Palmer Amaranth2006Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Robert Scott, Jason Norsworthy, Kenneth Smith
16 5344Johnsongrass2007Sorghum halepense
Johnsongrass
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Robert Scott, Jason Norsworthy
17 5401Italian Ryegrass2008Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasArkansas Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Nilda R. Burgos, Robert Scott
18 5563Barnyardgrass2008Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
Barnyardgrass
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly (F4/13) Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly (F4/13) clomazone Jason Norsworthy
19 5560Rice Flatsedge2010Cyperus iria
Rice Flatsedge
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) bispyribac-sodium, halosulfuron-methyl, imazamox, imazethapyr, penoxsulam Jason Norsworthy
20 5562Smallflower Umbrella Sedge2010Cyperus difformis
Smallflower Umbrella Sedge
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) halosulfuron-methyl Jason Norsworthy
21 10956Junglerice2011Echinochloa colona
Junglerice
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis (L/26), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7) Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis (L/26)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
imazethapyr, propanil, quinclorac (MOA in monocots) Nilda R. Burgos
22 11006Palmer Amaranth2011Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
fomesafen, pyrithiobac-sodium, trifloxysulfuron-Na Nilda R. Burgos, Robert Scott, Jason Norsworthy, Reiofeli Salas, Tom Barber
23 6752Yellow Nutsedge2013Cyperus esculentus
Yellow Nutsedge
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) halosulfuron-methyl Jason Norsworthy, Parsa Tehranchian
24 10980Tall Waterhemp2015Amaranthus tuberculatus (=A. rudis)
Tall Waterhemp
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Jason Norsworthy
25 18156Palmer Amaranth2016Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9), Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3), Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14), Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15) Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
acifluorfen, carfentrazone-ethyl, flumetsulam, fluthiacet-methyl, fomesafen, glyphosate, imazethapyr, lactofen, pendimethalin, pyraflufen-ethyl, pyrithiobac-sodium, S-metolachlor, trifloxysulfuron-Na Nilda R. Burgos, Matthew Bertucci, Cammy Willett , Badou Jeremie Kouame
26 18154Palmer Amaranth2017Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15) Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15) S-metolachlor Jason Norsworthy, Vijay Varanasi, Tom Barber, Chad Brabham, Michael Houston
27 20229Palmer Amaranth2020Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase (H/10) Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase (H/10) glufosinate-ammonium Jason Norsworthy, Thomas Butts, Tom Barber
28 20230Pennsylvania Smartweed2020Polygonum pensylvanicum
Pennsylvania Smartweed
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) bispyribac-sodium, halosulfuron-methyl, prosulfuron Jason Norsworthy, Thomas Butts, Tom Barber
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