International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP A/1 RESISTANT HOOD CANARYGRASS
(Phalaris paradoxa)


ACCase inhibitors (A/1)

Italy
INTRODUCTION HOOD CANARYGRASS
Hood Canarygrass (Phalaris paradoxa) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Italy this weed first evolved resistance to Group A/1 herbicides in 1998 and infests Wheat.   Group A/1 herbicides are known as ACCase inhibitors (Inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden, and sethoxydim and they may be cross-resistant to other Group A/1 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated May 01, 2012 )

Common NameHood Canarygrass
SpeciesPhalaris paradoxa
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Herbicidesclodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden, and sethoxydim
LocationItaly
Year1998
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Alberto Collavo, and Maurizio Sattin 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Maurizio Sattin
Central and southern Italy, expecially in Apulia Marche and Lazio.

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CONTROL STRATEGIES

Maurizio Sattin
Integrated weed management by combining the delay of sowing time and herbicide treatements.

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CROSS RESISTANCE

Maurizio Sattin
Most populations are resistant to diclofop-methyl only. A population from Apulia shares high levels of cross-resistance to clodinafop, fenoxaprop, tralckoxydim and sethoxydim. All populations are still susceptible to ALS inhibitors.

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FIELD HISTORIES

Maurizio Sattin
Field histories highlight that where resistance developed, fields had had at least 5 treatments with ACCase inhibitors. Often, but not always, the cropping system was a wheat monoculture. However, where rotation was adopted, the other crops (i.e. autumn sown sugarbeet, clover) were often treated with an ACCase inhibitor. Until the mid-nineties diclofop was the usual selecting agent while later, fenoxaprop and especially clodinafop were often used.

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RESISTANCE RATIO

Maurizio Sattin
Dose-response experiments with a S check population show that the resistance ratio is >2.5 with diclofop, but the population from Apulia displaies a higher resistance ratio with clodinafop (62), fenoxaprop (17), tralkoxydim (27) and sethoxydim (41).

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Hood Canarygrass biotype with this Hood Canarygrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A/1 resistant Hood Canarygrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group A/1 resistant Hood Canarygrass from Italy indicate that resistance is due to unknown, and an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group A/1 resistant Hood Canarygrass from Italy please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ALBERTO COLLAVO
Post Doc
National Council for Research (CNR)
Institute Of Agro-Environmental And Forest Biology (IBAF)
Viale dell'Univeristà 16
Legnaro, 35020, Padova
Italy
Email Alberto Collavo
Web   : Web Site Link
MAURIZIO SATTIN
Senior Weed Scientist
Italian National Research Council (cnr)
IBAF - Weed Science Unit
Viale dell'Università 16
Legnaro, 35020, Padova
Italy
Email Maurizio Sattin
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Italy have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Alberto Collavo, and Maurizio Sattin for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Hood Canarygrass Globally
(Phalaris paradoxa)
Herbicide Resistant Hood Canarygrass Globally
(Phalaris paradoxa)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Hood Canarygrass Globally
(Phalaris paradoxa)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1997 Wheat, and Winter pulses fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass1137
2 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2012 Spring Barley, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and mesosulfuron-methyl 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass7840
3 IranIran 2007 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass5342
4 IsraelIsrael 1979 Railways, and Roadsides atrazine 23 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass96
5 IsraelIsrael 2004 Peas, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-P-methyl, and tralkoxydim 23 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass5299
6 ItalyItaly 1998 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden, and sethoxydim 24 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass5108
7 MexicoMexico 1996 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim 29 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass5479
8 SyriaSyria 2015 Faba beans, Potatoes, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 69 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
128Phalaris paradoxaHood Canarygrass15059
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