International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
(Digitaria sanguinalis)

Photosystem II- Serine 264 Binders (C1/5)

Large Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Poland this weed first evolved resistance to Group C1/5 herbicides in 1995 and infests Orchards.   Group C1/5 herbicides are known as Photosystem II- Serine 264 Binders (Inhbition of Photosynthesis at PSll - Serine 264 Binders ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to atrazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group C1/5 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameLarge Crabgrass
SpeciesDigitaria sanguinalis
GroupPhotosystem II- Serine 264 Binders (C1/5)
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Kazimierz Adamczewski 
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G. Gadamski
Gadamski, G, D Ciarka, and Gawronski, S. W. 1996. Molecular survey of Polish resistant biotypes of weeds. Second International Weed Control Congress, Cophenhagen 1996.

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Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Large Crabgrass biotype with this Large Crabgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on Group C1/5 resistant Large Crabgrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
Relative Fitness

Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production.  There is no record in this database referring specifically to fitness studies on Group C1/5 resistant Large Crabgrass from Poland.
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Institute Of Plant Protection - National Research Institute
Depart. Of Weed Science
Str. Wladyslawa Wegorka 20
Poznań, 60-318, Poznań
Email Kazimierz Adamczewski


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Poland have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Kazimierz Adamczewski for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Large Crabgrass Globally
(Digitaria sanguinalis)
Herbicide Resistant Large Crabgrass Globally
(Digitaria sanguinalis)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Large Crabgrass Globally
(Digitaria sanguinalis)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1993 Onions, and Vegetables fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, and imazethapyr 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass16
2 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario2011 Carrots, and Onions clethodim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, quizalofop-ethyl, and sethoxydim 7 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass5678
3 ChinaChina 2010 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 9 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass5656
4 ChinaChina 2011 Cotton quizalofop-ethyl 9 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass5672
5 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 2005 Railways atrazine 12 Photosystem II- Serine 264 Binders (C1/5)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass5263
6 FranceFrance 1983 Corn (maize) atrazine 17 Photosystem II- Serine 264 Binders (C1/5)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass461
7 FranceFrance 2005 Carrots cycloxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, and quizalofop-ethyl 17 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass6748
8 FranceFrance 2015 Corn (maize) foramsulfuron, and nicosulfuron 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass11010
9 ItalyItaly 2006 Soybean cycloxydim, and fluazifop-P-butyl 24 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass5355
10 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 Photosystem II- Serine 264 Binders (C1/5)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass377
11 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin1992 Carrots, and Onions fluazifop-P-butyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass417
12 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2008 Turf sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
77Digitaria sanguinalisLarge Crabgrass7787
Literature about Similar Cases

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