International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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HRAC GROUP 2 (LEGACY B) RESISTANT BARNYARDGRASS
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)


Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

Germany
INTRODUCTION BARNYARDGRASS
Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Germany this weed first evolved resistance to Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides in 2012 and infests Corn (maize).   Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to nicosulfuron and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Aug 06, 2013 )

Common NameBarnyardgrass
SpeciesEchinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
GroupInhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Herbicidesnicosulfuron
LocationGermany
Year2012
Situation(s)Corn (maize)
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Gerhard Schroeder, and Jean Wagner 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Jean Wagner

Area of infestation: 2 ha
Resistance factor: Low, about 3.

Two field advisors were also instrumental in identifying this case.

Christine Tuemmler (Christine.Tuemmler@LELF.Brandenburg.de)
and
Gerhard Schroeder (Gerhard.schroeder@lelf.brandenburg.de)

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GENETICS

Jean Wagner

Genetic: Due to the hexaploid character resistance is "diluted" (three sensitive and one resistant ALS/plant)

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MECHANISM

Jean Wagner

Mechanism: TSR due to a Leu574 variation.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Barnyardgrass biotype with this Barnyardgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 2 resistant Barnyardgrass indicate that the inheritance is determined by a one gene, nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Barnyardgrass from Germany indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Barnyardgrass from Germany please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

GERHARD SCHROEDER
Pflanzenschutz im Ackerbau, Grünland
15806 Zossen/OT Wünsdorf
Steinplatz 1
Wünsdorf
Germany
Email Gerhard Schroeder
JEAN WAGNER
Weed Scientist
Plant Pathology and Crop Protection
Department of Crop Sciences
Grisebachstrasse 6
Göttingen, 37077
Germany
Email Jean Wagner
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Germany have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Gerhard Schroeder, and Jean Wagner for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2019 Corn (maize) glyphosate 48 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass18183
2 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2021 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, and profoxydim 1 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass19214
3 AustriaAustria 2011 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 2 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass6747
4 BrazilBrazil 1999 Rice quinclorac 5 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1191
5 BrazilBrazil 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium, imazethapyr, penoxsulam, and quinclorac 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5484
6 BrazilBrazil 2015 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, penoxsulam, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 5 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis ( HRAC Group 29 (Legacy L)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass15069
7 BrazilBrazil 2018 Rice florpyrauxifen, penoxsulam, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 5 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis ( HRAC Group 29 (Legacy L)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass26265
8 BrazilBrazil 2020 Soybean glyphosate 5 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass19211
9 BulgariaBulgaria 1992 Orchards pendimethalin 6 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly ( HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass544
10 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario1981 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 7 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass62
11 ChinaChina 1993 Rice butachlor 9 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass69
12 ChinaChina 1993 Rice thiobencarb/benthiocarb 9 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass379
13 ChinaChina 2000 Rice quinclorac 9 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5538
14 ChinaChina 2010 Rice, and Soybean fenoxaprop-ethyl, and quizalofop-ethyl 9 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5474
15 ChinaChina 2011 Rice penoxsulam 9 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5653
16 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1994 Corn (maize) atrazine 12 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5052
17 EgyptEgypt 2009 Rice fenoxaprop-ethyl 15 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7897
18 FranceFrance 1982 Corn (maize) atrazine 17 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass462
19 FranceFrance 2013 Corn (maize), and Rice foramsulfuron, and penoxsulam 17 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass9934
20 GermanyGermany 2012 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 18 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5738
21 GreeceGreece 1986 Rice propanil 19 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass89
22 IndiaIndia 2017 Rice bispyribac-sodium 21 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass25264
23 ItalyItaly 2000 Rice propanil 24 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5114
24 ItalyItaly 2005 Corn (maize), and Rice azimsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, imazamox, nicosulfuron, and penoxsulam 24 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5356
25 ItalyItaly 2009 Rice azimsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, imazamox, penoxsulam, and profoxydim 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5639
26 ItalyItaly 2011 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, and profoxydim 24 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass8904
27 JapanJapan 2010 Rice cyhalofop-butyl 25 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7769
28 PhilippinesPhilippines 2005 Rice butachlor, and propanil 32 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5272
29 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass374
30 South KoreaSouth Korea 2008 Rice azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, flucetosulfuron, halosulfuron-methyl, imazosulfuron, metamifop, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, pyribenzoxim, and pyriminobac-methyl 27 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5525
31 SpainSpain 1992 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass171
32 SpainSpain 2015 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 38 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass11016
33 Sri LankaSri Lanka 1997 Rice propanil 39 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass535
34 ThailandThailand 1998 Rice butachlor, and propanil 47 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1185
35 ThailandThailand 2001 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, and quizalofop-ethyl 47 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5113
36 ThailandThailand 2021 Rice quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 47 Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis ( HRAC Group 29 (Legacy L)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass27275
37 TurkeyTurkey 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, and penoxsulam 71 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5531
38 UkraineUkraine 2017 Rice imazamox, imazapyr, nicosulfuron, and penoxsulam 230 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass17113
39 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1978 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass426
40 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1990 Cropland, and Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass399
41 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1991 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass271
42 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri1994 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1082
43 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana1995 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1046
44 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana1998 Rice quinclorac 45 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1180
45 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1999 Rice propanil, and quinclorac 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1188
46 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2000 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, molinate, and thiobencarb/benthiocarb 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5136
47 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2008 Rice clomazone 45 Inhibition of Deoxy-D-Xylulose Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 13 (Legacy F4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5563
48 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2011 Rice fenoxaprop-ethyl, imazamox, imazethapyr, propanil, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 45 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis ( HRAC Group 29 (Legacy L)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass8901
49 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2013 Rice imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7786
50 UruguayUruguay 2013 Rice quinclorac 73 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7812
51 UruguayUruguay 2013 Rice imazapic, and imazapyr 73 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7813
52 Viet NamViet Nam 2017 Rice bispyribac-sodium, penoxsulam, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 74 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis ( HRAC Group 29 (Legacy L)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass23242
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