International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
(Ischaemum rugosum)

PS I Electron Diversion HRAC Group 22 (Legacy D)

Malaysia, Saramrah
Saramollagrass (Ischaemum rugosum) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Malaysia this weed first evolved resistance to Group 22 (Legacy D) herbicides in 1989 and infests Rubber, and Vegetables.   Group 22 (Legacy D) herbicides are known as PS I Electron Diversion (PSI Electron Diversion ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 22 (Legacy D) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameSaramollagrass
SpeciesIschaemum rugosum
GroupPS I Electron Diversion HRAC Group 22 (Legacy D)
LocationMalaysia, Saramrah
Situation(s)Rubber, and Vegetables
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Baki Bakar 
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Confirmation Tests

Field trials comparing a known susceptible Saramollagrass biotype with this Saramollagrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 22 resistant Saramollagrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 22 (Legacy D) resistant Saramollagrass from Malaysia please update the database.
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Senior Research Fellow
Institute of Biological Sciences, University Of Malaya
Dept. Of Botany
Faculty of Science Building
Kuala Lumpur, 50603 , Kuala Lumpur
Email Baki Bakar
Web   : Web Site Link


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Malaysia have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Baki Bakar for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Saramollagrass Globally
(Ischaemum rugosum)
Herbicide Resistant Saramollagrass Globally
(Ischaemum rugosum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Saramollagrass Globally
(Ischaemum rugosum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ColombiaColombia 2000 Rice fenoxaprop-ethyl 10 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass5143
2 ColombiaColombia 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium 10 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass18166
3 MalaysiaMalaysia 1989 Rubber, and Vegetables paraquat 28 PS I Electron Diversion ( HRAC Group 22 (Legacy D)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass139
4 VenezuelaVenezuela 2004 Rice bispyribac-sodium, fenoxaprop-ethyl, imazapyr, imazethapyr, profoxydim, propanil, and pyribenzoxim 80 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass5552
Literature about Similar Cases

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