International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT LATE WATERGRASS
(Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola))


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

Greece, Northern Greece
INTRODUCTION LATE WATERGRASS
Late Watergrass (Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola)) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Greece this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 2009 and infests Rice.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, imazamox, nicosulfuron, penoxsulam, and rimsulfuron and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Oct 19, 2016 )

Common NameLate Watergrass
SpeciesEchinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola)
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicidesbispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, imazamox, nicosulfuron, penoxsulam, and rimsulfuron
LocationGreece, Northern Greece
Year2009
Situation(s)Rice
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Ilias Eleftherohorinos, and Nikolaos Kaloumenos 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

MECHANISM

Ilias Eleftherohorinos

Target-site mutation associated with cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in late watergrass (Echinochloa oryzicola Vasing.)

 Nikolaos S Kaloumenos, Sofia L Chatzilazaridou, Photini V Mylona, Alexios N Polidoros and Ilias G Eleftherohorinos

Pest Manag Sci 2013; 69: 865–873

BACKGROUND: Studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanism of resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in 29 Echinochloa accessions from water-seeded rice fields of northern Greece and to discriminate the Echinochloa species.

RESULTS: Two E. oryzicola accessions were found to be cross-resistant to penoxsulam, bispyribac-sodium, imazamox, foramsulfuron, nicosulfuron and rimsulfuron, whereas all accessions were susceptible (S) to profoxydim. Sequencing of the ALS gene revealed that resistant (R) accessions had a Trp574Leu mutation, which was also confirmed by TspRI endonuclease digestion. Use of cpDNA sequence comparison analysis of Echinochloa species discriminated successfully E. crus-galli and E. oryzicola accessions.

CONCLUSION: This is the first report of Echinochloa oryzicola cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides as a result of Trp574Leu mutation. The cpDNA sequence comparison analysis is a reliable tool for discrimination of conventionally classified E. crus-galli and E. oryzicola accessions.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Late Watergrass biotype with this Late Watergrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Late Watergrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group B/2 resistant Late Watergrass from Greece indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Late Watergrass from Greece please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ILIAS ELEFTHEROHORINOS
University Of Thessaloniki
Laboratory Of Agronomy
4033 Kensington Pl
Ghessaloniki, 54006
Greece
Email Ilias Eleftherohorinos
NIKOLAOS KALOUMENOS
Aristotle University Of Thessaloniki
Department Of Agriculture
4033 Kensington Pl
Thessaloniki, 54006
Greece
Email Nikolaos Kaloumenos

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Greece have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Ilias Eleftherohorinos, and Nikolaos Kaloumenos for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Late Watergrass Globally
(Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola))
Herbicide Resistant Late Watergrass Globally
(Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola))
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Late Watergrass Globally
(Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola))
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 FranceFrance 2013 Rice penoxsulam 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
178Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola)Late Watergrass9935
2 GreeceGreece 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, imazamox, nicosulfuron, penoxsulam, and rimsulfuron 19 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
178Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola)Late Watergrass13052
3 South KoreaSouth Korea 2006 Rice azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, halosulfuron-methyl, imazosulfuron, metamifop, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, pyribenzoxim, and pyriminobac-methyl 27 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
178Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola)Late Watergrass5392
4 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1998 Rice fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
178Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola)Late Watergrass283
5 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1998 Rice thiobencarb = benthiocarb 45 Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
178Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola)Late Watergrass1035
6 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2000 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, molinate, and thiobencarb = benthiocarb 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
178Echinochloa phyllopogon (=E. oryzicola)Late Watergrass5137
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