International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT BLACKGRASS
(Alopecurus myosuroides)


Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)

Spain, Navarra
INTRODUCTION BLACKGRASS
Blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Spain this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 3 herbicide sites of action) in 2015 and infests Canola, Faba beans, Peas, Wheat, and Winter barley.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups A/1, B/2, and C2/7.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to chlorotoluron, clodinafop-propargyl, cloransulam-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups A/1, B/2, and C2/7.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Feb 01, 2016 )

Common NameBlackgrass
SpeciesAlopecurus myosuroides
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Herbicideschlorotoluron, clodinafop-propargyl, cloransulam-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden
LocationSpain, Navarra
Year2015
Situation(s)Canola, Faba beans, Peas, Wheat, and Winter barley
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Irache Garnica (INTIA) 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Blackgrass biotype with this Blackgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A, B, C2/1, 2, 7 resistant Blackgrass indicate that the inheritance is determined by a nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Blackgrass from Spain indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Blackgrass from Spain please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

IRACHE GARNICA (INTIA)
Crop Protection Engineer
Agriculturaltechnologies And Infraestructures Institute Of N
Crop Protection Area
Aranad Y Vides
Bajo
Tudela, 31500, Navarra
Spain
Email Irache Garnica (INTIA)
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Spain have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Irache Garnica (INTIA) for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Blackgrass Globally
(Alopecurus myosuroides)
Herbicide Resistant Blackgrass Globally
(Alopecurus myosuroides)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Blackgrass Globally
(Alopecurus myosuroides)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BelgiumBelgium 1996 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 3 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass501
2 BelgiumBelgium 1996 Wheat isoproturon 3 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass502
3 BelgiumBelgium 1996 Winter wheat atrazine, chlorotoluron, clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, pendimethalin, and propaquizafop 3 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5043
4 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 2008 Wheat chlorsulfuron 12 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass7871
5 DenmarkDenmark 2001 Winter wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 13 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5347
6 DenmarkDenmark 2001 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, florasulam, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pendimethalin, and pyroxsulam 13 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5675
7 FranceFrance 1993 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, haloxyfop-P-methyl, and sethoxydim 17 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass546
8 FranceFrance 2006 Wheat imazamethabenz-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5329
9 GermanyGermany 1983 Sugar beets, and Wheat chlorotoluron, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and isoproturon 18 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass369
10 GermanyGermany 2001 Wheat flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium 18 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5154
11 GermanyGermany 2003 Sugar beets, and Winter wheat clethodim, cycloxydim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and fluazifop-P-butyl 18 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5237
12 GermanyGermany 2007 Wheat chlorotoluron, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, flufenacet, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden 18 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5361
13 GermanyGermany 2009 Cereals cycloxydim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden 18 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5536
14 IsraelIsrael 1979 Roadsides methabenzthiazuron 23 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass94
15 ItalyItaly 2009 Durum wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and pinoxaden 24 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5681
16 NetherlandsNetherlands 1989 Wheat chlorotoluron 43 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass221
17 NetherlandsNetherlands 1996 Winter wheat chlorotoluron, clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and isoproturon 43 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5082
18 NetherlandsNetherlands 1999 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and penoxsulam 43 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5083
19 NetherlandsNetherlands 2010 Winter wheat florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 43 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass10978
20 PolandPoland 2010 Winter wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 33 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5620
21 PolandPoland 2011 Winter wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and pinoxaden 33 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass6760
22 PolandPoland 2012 Winter wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, and sulfometuron-methyl 33 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass10969
23 SpainSpain 1991 Wheat chlorotoluron 38 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass188
24 SpainSpain 2015 Canola, Faba beans, Peas, Wheat, and Winter barley chlorotoluron, clodinafop-propargyl, cloransulam-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden 38 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass11014
25 SwedenSweden 2011 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 40 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass8911
26 SwedenSweden 2011 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, prosulfocarb, and pyroxsulam 40 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass8912
27 SwedenSweden 2014 Spring wheat, Winter barley, and Winter wheat cycloxydim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 40 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass10995
28 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1997 Wheat isoproturon 41 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass1132
29 TurkeyTurkey 2001 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl 71 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5116
30 TurkeyTurkey 2008 clodinafop-propargyl, and pyroxsulam 71 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass5403
31 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1982 Canola, Cereals, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, pinoxaden, quizalofop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 44 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass357
32 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1982 Cereals chlorotoluron, and isoproturon 44 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass507
33 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1984 Wheat chlorsulfuron, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, imazamethabenz-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, propoxycarbazone-sodium, and pyroxsulam 44 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass323
34 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1987 Wheat pendimethalin 44 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
6Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrass329
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Thursday, September 21, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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