International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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GROUP G/9 RESISTANT PALMER AMARANTH
(Amaranthus palmeri)


EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)

Brazil, Mato Grosso
INTRODUCTION PALMER AMARANTH
Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family.  In Brazil this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2015 and infests Cotton.   Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group G/9 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Dec 20, 2015 )

Common NamePalmer Amaranth
SpeciesAmaranthus palmeri
GroupEPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Herbicidesglyphosate
LocationBrazil, Mato Grosso
Year2015
Situation(s)Cotton
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Edson Andrade Junior, Sebastião Carneiro Guimarães, Saul Carvalho, Pedro Christoffoleti, Acácio Gonçalves Netto, Anderson Luis Cavenaghi, and Marcelo Nicolai 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

DOSE RESPONSE

Pedro Christoffoleti

Planta Daninha, Viçosa-MG, v. 33, n. 3, p. 579-586, 2015 

DETECTION OF GLYPHOSATE-RESISTANT PALMER AMARANTH (Amaranthus palmeri) IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

CARVALHO, S.J.P., GONÇALVES NETTO, A., NICOLAI, M., CAVENAGHI, A.L., LÓPEZ-OVEJERO, R.F., and CHRISTOFFOLETI, P.J.

ABSTRACT - The recent introduction of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Brazilian agricultural areas may promote several changes on weed management, especially in no-till systems and in glyphosate-resistant crops, since glyphosate-resistant biotypes of A. palmeri have been frequently selected in other countries. Therefore, this research was developed in order to evaluate the glyphosate susceptibility of a Palmer amaranth biotype recently identified in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. For this purpose, glyphosate susceptibility of three Amaranthus biotypes was compared: A. hybridus var. patulus, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil; A. hybridus var. patulus, collected in the State of São Paulo - Brazil; and A. palmeri, collected in the State of Mato Grosso - Brazil. Dose-response curves were generated for all biotypes, considering eight rates of glyphosate and six replicates. All the experiments were repeated twice. Both A. hybridus biotypes were satisfactorily controlled by glyphosate, demanding rates equal to or lower than 541.15 g a.e. ha-1 for 80% control (LD80). The A. palmeri biotype was not controlled by glyphosate in any of the assessments and required rates greater than 4,500 g a.e. ha-1 to reach LD80, which are economically and environmentally unacceptable. Comparison of the Brazilian A. palmeri biotype to the A. hybridus biotypes, as well as, to the results available in scientific international literature, led to the conclusion that the Brazilian Palmer amaranth biotype is resistant to glyphosate.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Palmer Amaranth biotype with this Palmer Amaranth biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group G/9 resistant Palmer Amaranth have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group G/9 resistant Palmer Amaranth from Brazil please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

EDSON ANDRADE JUNIOR
Research
Instituto Mato-Grossense do Algodão
Crop Protection
Highway BR 070 KM 265 post office box 149
Primavera do Leste, 78850000, Mato Grosso
Brazil
Email Edson Andrade Junior
Web   : Web Site Link
SEBASTIÃO CARNEIRO GUIMARÃES
Associate Professor
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso
Faculdade de Agronomia
Av. Fernando Correa da Costa 2367
Bairro Boa Esperança
Cuiabá, 78850000, Mato Grosso
Brazil
Email Sebastião Carneiro Guimarães
Web   : Web Site Link
SAUL CARVALHO
Professor
IFSULDEMINAS
Machado - MG
PO. Box 1054
Machado, 37750000, Mato Grosso
Brazil
Email Saul Carvalho
Web   : Web Site Link
PEDRO CHRISTOFFOLETI
Associate Professor III
Universidade de Sao Paulo
Crop Science Department
ESALQ - USP - LPV - Av. Padua Dias 11 - C. Postal 09
Piracicaba, 13418-900, São Paulo
Brazil
Email Pedro Christoffoleti
Web   : Web Site Link
ACÁCIO GONÇALVES NETTO
M. Sc. Student
Universidade de São Paulo
Crop Science Department
ESALQ - USP - LPV - Av. Padua Dias 11 - C. Postal 09
Piracicaba, 13418-900, São Paulo
Brazil
Email Acácio Gonçalves Netto
Web   : Web Site Link
ANDERSON LUIS CAVENAGHI
Associate Professor
UNIVAG – Centro Universitário de Várzea Grande
GPA CABE AGRONOMIA
Av. Dom Orlando Chaves
2.655, Bairro Cristo Rei
Várzea Grande, 13418-900, Matto Grosso
Brazil
Email Anderson Luis Cavenaghi
Web   : Web Site Link
MARCELO NICOLAI
Researcher
Agrocon Assessoria Agronomica LTDA
Weed Resistance
Caixa postal 107
Santa Bárbara D´Oeste, 13450-971, Matto Grosso
Brazil
Email Marcelo Nicolai
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Brazil have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Edson Andrade Junior, Sebastião Carneiro Guimarães, Saul Carvalho, Pedro Christoffoleti, Acácio Gonçalves Netto, Anderson Luis Cavenaghi, and Marcelo Nicolai for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2015 Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13038
2 BrazilBrazil 2015 Cotton glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth11009
3 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, glyphosate, and imazethapyr 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13042
4 IsraelIsrael 2008 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Watermelon foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pyrithiobac-sodium, rimsulfuron, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 23 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth9921
5 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1989 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth267
6 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1993 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth270
7 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1993 Alfalfa, Corn (maize), Sorghum, and Soybean imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth332
8 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1994 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, diclosulam, imazaquin, imazethapyr, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth403
9 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1994 Cotton, and Soybean imazaquin, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5313
10 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1995 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1040
11 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1995 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1059
12 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1997 Corn (maize), Cotton, Peanut (groundnut), and Soybean imazapic, imazaquin, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1111
13 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1998 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5569
14 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2000 Peanut (groundnut) imazapic, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5092
15 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2005 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5256
16 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2005 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5360
17 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2006 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5296
18 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2006 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5387
19 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina2006 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7780
20 United States (New Mexico) United StatesNew Mexico2007 Orchards, and Pecan nut glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5386
21 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2008 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5359
22 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2008 Cropland imazapic, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5369
23 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2008 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5388
24 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2008 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5391
25 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2008 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5498
26 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2008 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5499
27 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2009 Cotton, and Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5571
28 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2009 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine, mesotrione, pyrasulfotole, tembotrione, thifensulfuron-methyl, and topramezone 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5705
29 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5494
30 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2010 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5543
31 United States (Ohio) United StatesOhio2010 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5696
32 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina2010 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate, pyrithiobac-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7781
33 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2010 Corn (maize) atrazine, glyphosate, imazapic, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7788
34 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky2010 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7882
35 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5557
36 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5568
37 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2011 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5694
38 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2011 Corn (maize) mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone 45 HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5700
39 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2011 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5704
40 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas2011 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7777
41 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2011 Soybean fomesafen, pyrithiobac-sodium, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth11006
42 United States (Arizona) United StatesArizona2012 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5699
43 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2012 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5707
44 United States (Indiana) United StatesIndiana2012 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7835
45 United States (Pennsylvania) United StatesPennsylvania2013 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7779
46 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7866
47 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate, imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7867
48 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2013 Corn (maize), and Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7869
49 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2013 Soybean glyphosate, and imazapic 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7870
50 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth10957
51 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2014 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth8914
52 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland2014 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth8915
53 United States (New Jersey) United StatesNew Jersey2014 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth9922
54 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2014 Corn (maize) atrazine, mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13048
55 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin2014 Corn (maize) imazethapyr, tembotrione, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth16099
56 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2015 Soybean fomesafen, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13037
57 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2015 Corn (maize) glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13041
58 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2016 Soybean atrazine, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13047
59 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2016 Corn (maize), Horseradish, and Soybean fomesafen, glyphosate, and lactofen 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13050
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