International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
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Herbicide Resistant Redroot Pigweed Globally
(Amaranthus retroflexus)
Herbicide Resistant Redroot Pigweed Globally
(Amaranthus retroflexus)
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Herbicide Resistant Redroot Pigweed Globally
(Amaranthus retroflexus)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BrazilBrazil 2011 Cotton atrazine, prometryn, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5734
2 BrazilBrazil 2012 Cotton pyrithiobac-sodium, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 5 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5733
3 BrazilBrazil 2014 Cotton, and Soybean fomesafen 5 PPO inhibitors (E/14)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed13033
4 BulgariaBulgaria 1984 Corn (maize), Cropland, Grapes, and Orchards atrazine, metribuzin, and simazine 6 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed44
5 BulgariaBulgaria 1984 Cropland linuron 6 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed45
6 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario1980 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 7 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed61
7 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario1998 Corn (maize), Cropland, and Soybean imazethapyr, and thifensulfuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed1161
8 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario2001 Carrots, and Vegetables linuron 7 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5125
9 Canada (Quebec) CanadaQuebec2001 Carrots linuron 7 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5126
10 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba2002 Wheat florasulam 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5222
11 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario2005 Corn (maize) bentazon, and bromoxynil 7 PSII inhibitors (Nitriles) (C3/6)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5473
12 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan2010 Wheat thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5628
13 ChinaChina 1990 Cropland atrazine 9 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed1141
14 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1985 Corn (maize), Railways, Roadsides, and Sugar beets atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, and terbutryn 12 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed77
15 FranceFrance 1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed455
16 GermanyGermany 1980 Corn (maize), Railways, and Roadsides atrazine, and fenuron 18 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed370
17 GermanyGermany 2012 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 18 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed6742
18 GreeceGreece 2000 Potatoes metribuzin 19 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5058
19 IsraelIsrael 1991 Forests chlorsulfuron 23 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed106
20 ItalyItaly 1999 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Sugar beets chloridazon = pyrazon, metamitron, and terbuthylazine 24 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5115
21 ItalyItaly 2003 Soybean imazamox, imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, oxasulfuron, and thifensulfuron-methyl 24 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5248
22 PolandPoland 1991 Orchards, and Sugar beets atrazine, and metamitron 33 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed164
23 SerbiaSerbia 1999 Corn (maize) atrazine 245 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5056
24 SerbiaSerbia 2002 Soybean imazethapyr 245 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5216
25 SpainSpain 1986 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed187
26 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1982 Grapes, Orchards, and Vegetables simazine 41 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed199
27 United States (Indiana) United StatesIndiana1980 Cropland atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed408
28 United States (Colorado) United StatesColorado1982 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed430
29 United States (Connecticut) United StatesConnecticut1984 Corn (maize) atrazine, and cyanazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed1071
30 United States (New Hampshire) United StatesNew Hampshire1984 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed1078
31 United States (Maine) United StatesMaine1985 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed1092
32 United States (Minnesota) United StatesMinnesota1991 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed245
33 United States (Vermont) United StatesVermont1991 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed1101
34 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia1993 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed373
35 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Mint terbacil 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed321
36 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1995 Cropland, and Soybean imazaquin 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed402
37 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1995 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed1039
38 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1998 Unspecified imazaquin, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed1085
39 United States (Pennsylvania) United StatesPennsylvania1998 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Tomatoes atrazine, chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazamox, imazaquin, imazethapyr, primisulfuron-methyl, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5021
40 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota1999 Soybean imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5046
41 United States (West Virginia) United StatesWest Virginia2000 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed7773
42 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan2001 Asparagus atrazine, and diuron 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5177
43 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho2005 Potatoes metribuzin 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5293
44 United States (Washington) United StatesWashington2010 Mint, and Potatoes metribuzin, and terbacil 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
16Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot Pigweed5667
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