International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
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Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
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Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2015 Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13038
2 BrazilBrazil 2015 Cotton glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth11009
3 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, glyphosate, and imazethapyr 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13042
4 IsraelIsrael 2008 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Watermelon foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pyrithiobac-sodium, rimsulfuron, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 23 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth9921
5 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1989 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth267
6 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1993 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth270
7 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1993 Alfalfa, Corn (maize), Sorghum, and Soybean imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth332
8 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1994 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, diclosulam, imazaquin, imazethapyr, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth403
9 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1994 Cotton, and Soybean imazaquin, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5313
10 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1995 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1040
11 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1995 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1059
12 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1997 Corn (maize), Cotton, Peanut (groundnut), and Soybean imazapic, imazaquin, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1111
13 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1998 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5569
14 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2000 Peanut (groundnut) imazapic, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5092
15 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2005 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5256
16 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2005 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5360
17 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2006 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5296
18 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2006 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5387
19 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina2006 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7780
20 United States (New Mexico) United StatesNew Mexico2007 Orchards, and Pecan nut glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5386
21 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2008 Cropland glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5359
22 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2008 Cropland imazapic, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5369
23 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2008 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5388
24 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2008 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5391
25 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2008 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5498
26 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2008 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5499
27 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2009 Cotton, and Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5571
28 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2009 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine, mesotrione, pyrasulfotole, tembotrione, thifensulfuron-methyl, and topramezone 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5705
29 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5494
30 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2010 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5543
31 United States (Ohio) United StatesOhio2010 Cropland glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5696
32 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina2010 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate, pyrithiobac-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7781
33 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2010 Corn (maize) atrazine, glyphosate, imazapic, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7788
34 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky2010 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7882
35 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5557
36 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5568
37 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2011 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5694
38 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2011 Corn (maize) mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone 45 HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5700
39 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2011 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5704
40 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas2011 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7777
41 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2011 Soybean fomesafen 45 PPO inhibitors (E/14)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth11006
42 United States (Arizona) United StatesArizona2012 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5699
43 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2012 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5707
44 United States (Indiana) United StatesIndiana2012 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7835
45 United States (Pennsylvania) United StatesPennsylvania2013 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7779
46 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7866
47 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate, imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7867
48 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2013 Corn (maize), and Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7869
49 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2013 Soybean glyphosate, and imazapic 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7870
50 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth10957
51 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2014 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth8914
52 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland2014 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth8915
53 United States (New Jersey) United StatesNew Jersey2014 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth9922
54 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2014 Corn (maize) atrazine, mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13048
55 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2015 Soybean fomesafen, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13037
56 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2015 Corn (maize) glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13041
57 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2016 Soybean atrazine, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13047
58 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2016 Corn (maize), Horseradish, and Soybean fomesafen, glyphosate, and lactofen 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13050
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