International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
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Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
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Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2009 Golf courses, and Turf endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5513
2 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16084
3 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16085
4 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16086
5 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses propyzamide = pronamide 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16087
6 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and rimsulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16088
7 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and rimsulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16089
8 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16090
9 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16091
10 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses propyzamide = pronamide 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16092
11 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and rimsulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16093
12 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16094
13 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16095
14 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16096
15 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses propyzamide = pronamide 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16097
16 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, endothall, foramsulfuron, glyphosate, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, propyzamide = pronamide, rimsulfuron, and simazine 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16098
17 BelgiumBelgium 1981 Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides simazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass33
18 BelgiumBelgium 1983 Orchards amitrole 3 Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass38
19 BelgiumBelgium 1993 Hops paraquat 3 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass36
20 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1988 Orchards, and Railways atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, and terbutryn 12 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass85
21 FranceFrance 1978 Orchards atrazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass464
22 GermanyGermany 1980 Orchards atrazine 18 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass449
23 JapanJapan 1982 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 25 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass117
24 NetherlandsNetherlands 1981 Orchards simazine 43 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass219
25 NorwayNorway 1996 Nurseries simazine 31 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass388
26 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Hops paraquat 44 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass359
27 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Orchards simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass366
28 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1980 Pastures simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1166
29 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed ethofumesate 45 Lipid Inhibitors (N/16)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass334
30 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed diuron 45 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass336
31 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass338
32 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1995 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1060
33 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1996 Turf atrazine, and simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1187
34 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1997 Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1165
35 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2001 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5162
36 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2007 Golf courses, and Turf dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5645
37 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2010 Turf glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5495
38 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Golf courses, and Turf glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5596
39 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2012 Turf bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, imazaquin, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5644
40 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2012 Turf dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5695
41 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2013 Golf courses, and Turf foramsulfuron, simazine, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass6765
42 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2013 Almonds glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass7805
43 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2014 Golf courses foramsulfuron 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass10982
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Sunday, September 24, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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