International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP G/9 RESISTANT TALL WINDMILL GRASS
(Chloris elata)


EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)

Brazil
INTRODUCTION TALL WINDMILL GRASS
Tall Windmill Grass (Chloris elata) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Brazil this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2014 and infests Soybean.   Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group G/9 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jun 26, 2014 )

Common NameTall Windmill Grass
SpeciesChloris elata
GroupEPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Herbicidesglyphosate
LocationBrazil
Year2014
Situation(s)Soybean
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Caio Brunharo, Pedro Christoffoleti, Todd Gaines, Marcel Sereguin Cabral de Melo, Marcelo Nicolai, and Scott Nissen 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Tall Windmill Grass biotype with this Tall Windmill Grass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group G/9 resistant Tall Windmill Grass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group G/9 resistant Tall Windmill Grass from Brazil please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

CAIO BRUNHARO
Student
University of California at Davis
Plant and Environmental Sciences
One Shields Avenue
Davis, 95616, California
United States
Email Caio Brunharo
PEDRO CHRISTOFFOLETI
Associate Professor III
Universidade de Sao Paulo
Crop Science Department
ESALQ - USP - LPV - Av. Padua Dias 11 - C. Postal 09
Piracicaba, 13418-900, São Paulo
Brazil
Email Pedro Christoffoleti
Web   : Web Site Link
TODD GAINES
Assistant Professor
Colorado State University
Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management
1177 Campus Delivery
Fort Collins, 80523, Colorado
United States
Email Todd Gaines
Web   : Web Site Link
MARCEL SEREGUIN CABRAL DE MELO
Weed Resistance Monitoring Specialist
Bayer
Plant growth
5005, Dr. Roberto Moreira avenue
Bairro Recanto dos pássaros, Setor EAE
Paulínia, 13148-914, Sao Paulo
Brazil
Email Marcel Sereguin Cabral de Melo
Web   : Web Site Link
MARCELO NICOLAI
Graduate Student Phd
University Of Sao Paulo
Crop Science
A438 Plant& Soil Science Building
Department Of Horticulture,
Piracicaba, 13418-900, Sao Paulo
Brazil
Email Marcelo Nicolai
Web   : Web Site Link
SCOTT NISSEN
Professor and Extension Specialist
Colorado State University
Weed Science
Office: 115 Weed Lab
Fort Collins , 80523, Colorado
United States
Email Scott Nissen
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Brazil have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Caio Brunharo, Pedro Christoffoleti, Todd Gaines, Marcel Sereguin Cabral de Melo, Marcelo Nicolai, and Scott Nissen for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Tall Windmill Grass Globally
(Chloris elata)
Herbicide Resistant Tall Windmill Grass Globally
(Chloris elata)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Tall Windmill Grass Globally
(Chloris elata)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BrazilBrazil 2014 Soybean glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
316Chloris elataTall Windmill Grass8918
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Wednesday, November 22, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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