International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT WILD RADISH
(Raphanus raphanistrum)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

Brazil, Northern Paraná
INTRODUCTION WILD RADISH
Wild Radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) is a dicot weed in the Brassicaceae family.  In Brazil this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 2013 and infests Spring Barley, and Wheat.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazapic, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, metsulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Mar 07, 2014 )

Common NameWild Radish
SpeciesRaphanus raphanistrum
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicideschlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazapic, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, metsulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl
LocationBrazil, Northern Paraná
Year2013
Situation(s)Spring Barley, and Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)LEANDRO OLIVEIRA DA COSTA 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

DOSE RESPONSE

LEANDRO OLIVEIRA DA COSTA
Raphanus raphanistrum Resistance to the Herbicide Metsulfuron-Methyl

COSTA, L.O. and RIZZARDI, M.A.

Planta Daninha In Press

The ALS-inhibiting herbicides, especially metsulfuron-methyl, are widely used for weed control, mainly wheat and barley in southern Brazil. Raphanus raphanistrum is a major weed of winter crops. However, in recent years, R. raphanistrum, after being treated with metsulfuron, has shown no symptoms of toxicity, possibly due to herbicide resistance. Aiming to evaluate the existence of R. raphanistrum biotypes resistant to metsulfuron, an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design with four replications. The plots consisted of pots with six plants. The treatments consisted of the interaction of resistant R. raphanistrum (biotype R) and susceptible R. raphanistrum (biotypes S) with ten doses of the herbicide (0.0; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4; 4.8; 9.6; 19.2; 38.4; 76.8 and 153.6 g i.a. ha-1). The application of the test herbicides occurred when the crop was at the stage of 3 to 4 true leaves. The variables analyzed were control and dry matter accumulation. Statistical analysis of dose-response curves was performed by non linear regression. Biotype S was susceptible to the herbicide even at doses below the recommended. Biotype R was insensitive to the herbicide obtaining values of resistance factor (F) higher than 85. The dose-response curve confirmed the existence of R. raphanistrum biotypes with high level of resistance to metsulfuron-methyl.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Wild Radish biotype with this Wild Radish biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Wild Radish have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Wild Radish from Brazil please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

LEANDRO OLIVEIRA DA COSTA
PhD student
Universidade de Passo Fundo
weed ecophysiology
Bairro São José
Passo Fundo, 99052-210, Rio Grande do Sul
Brazil
Email LEANDRO OLIVEIRA DA COSTA
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Brazil have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to LEANDRO OLIVEIRA DA COSTA for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1997 Cereals, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metosulam 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish522
2 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1998 Cropland chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, and metosulam 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors (F1/12)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5033
3 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1998 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and metosulam 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5034
4 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1999 Lupins, and Triazine-tolerant canola atrazine, and simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish1135
5 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1999 Cereals 2,4-D 1 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5358
6 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2004 Cereals chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and triasulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5338
7 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2006 Cereals 2,4-D, diflufenican, MCPA, and triasulfuron 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors (F1/12)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5364
8 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2009 Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, and metosulam 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7845
9 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2010 Fallow 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, glyphosate, imazethapyr, MCPA, metosulam, and sulfometuron-methyl 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors (F1/12)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7888
10 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2011 Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D 1 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7846
11 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2013 Oats, Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D 1 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7839
12 BrazilBrazil 2013 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazapic, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, metsulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl 5 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7895
13 South AfricaSouth Africa 1997 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, metsulfuron-methyl, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl 37 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5197
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