International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP G/9 RESISTANT PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
(Lolium perenne)


EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)

Portugal, Douro
INTRODUCTION PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Portugal this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2013 and infests Grapes.   Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group G/9 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 14, 2014 )

Common NamePerennial Ryegrass
SpeciesLolium perenne
GroupEPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Herbicidesglyphosate
LocationPortugal, Douro
Year2013
Situation(s)Grapes
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Isabel Calha, and Rafael De Prado 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Perennial Ryegrass biotype with this Perennial Ryegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group G/9 resistant Perennial Ryegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group G/9 resistant Perennial Ryegrass from Portugal please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ISABEL CALHA
Instituto Nacional De Recursos Biológicos, Ip (inrb I.p. )
Laboratório Nacional De Investigação Agrária (linia)
Unidade De Investigação De Protecção De Plantas (uipp)
Dept of Agronomy& Plant Genetics
411 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle
Oeiras, 2784-505
Portugal
Email Isabel Calha
RAFAEL DE PRADO
Instituto Nacional De Recursos Biológicos, Ip (inrb I.p. )
Universidad De Cordoba
Qvimica Agricola Y Edafologa
E T S Ingenieros Agronomos
PO Box 119
Cordoba, E-14080, Andalusia
Spain
Email Rafael De Prado

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Portugal have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Isabel Calha, and Rafael De Prado for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Perennial Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne)
Herbicide Resistant Perennial Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne)
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Herbicide Resistant Perennial Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2008 Cropland, Soybean, Spring Barley, and Wheat glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass5487
2 ChileChile 2001 Cereals clodinafop-propargyl, and diclofop-methyl 8 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass5397
3 GermanyGermany 2008 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and pyroxsulam 18 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass5385
4 New ZealandNew Zealand 2012 Grapes glyphosate 30 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass6750
5 New ZealandNew Zealand 2015 Grapes amitrole, glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate 30 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass14055
6 PortugalPortugal 2013 Grapes glyphosate 34 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass7825
7 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1989 Railways, and Roadsides sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass396
8 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1989 Roadsides sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass397
Literature about Similar Cases

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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Friday, March 24, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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