International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT SILKY WINDGRASS
(Apera spica-venti)


Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)

Germany
INTRODUCTION SILKY WINDGRASS
Silky Windgrass (Apera spica-venti) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Germany this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 3 herbicide sites of action) in 2009 and infests Spring Barley, and Winter wheat.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups A/1, B/2, and C2/7.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups A/1, B/2, and C2/7.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 10, 2012 )

Common NameSilky Windgrass
SpeciesApera spica-venti
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Herbicidesfenoxaprop-P-ethyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron
LocationGermany
Year2009
Situation(s)Spring Barley, and Winter wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Jan Petersen 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Silky Windgrass biotype with this Silky Windgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A, B, C2/1, 2, 7 resistant Silky Windgrass indicate that the inheritance is determined by a two gene, dominant, nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Silky Windgrass from Germany indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Silky Windgrass from Germany please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JAN PETERSEN
Professor
University Of Applied Science Bingen
Fac. Of Life Science And Engineering
2836 Crestscene Trail
Bingen, D-55411
Germany
Email Jan Petersen
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Germany have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Jan Petersen for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Silky Windgrass Globally
(Apera spica-venti)
Herbicide Resistant Silky Windgrass Globally
(Apera spica-venti)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Silky Windgrass Globally
(Apera spica-venti)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 AustriaAustria 2009 Cereals iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and isoproturon 2 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass6746
2 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 2005 Cereals, and Winter wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 12 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5266
3 DenmarkDenmark 2011 Winter wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and sulfosulfuron 13 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5674
4 DenmarkDenmark 2016 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden 13 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass15078
5 FranceFrance 2006 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass9936
6 GermanyGermany 1997 Cereals, and Winter wheat isoproturon 18 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5026
7 GermanyGermany 2005 Wheat chlorsulfuron, florasulam, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pyroxsulam, sulfometuron-methyl, and sulfosulfuron 18 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5526
8 GermanyGermany 2009 Spring Barley, and Winter wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 18 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5410
9 LatviaLatvia 2015 Wheat, and Winter wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 174 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass15067
10 LithuaniaLithuania 2013 Winter wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 185 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass7821
11 PolandPoland 2005 Winter wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, procarbazone-sodium, and sulfosulfuron 33 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5395
12 PolandPoland 2010 Winter wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and pinoxaden 33 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5619
13 PolandPoland 2011 Winter wheat chlorsulfuron, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, sulfometuron-methyl, and sulfosulfuron 33 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass6758
14 PolandPoland 2012 Winter wheat isoproturon 33 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass6759
15 SwedenSweden 2006 Winter wheat isoproturon 40 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass10996
16 SwedenSweden 2010 Winter wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and sulfosulfuron 40 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass10994
17 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1994 Wheat isoproturon 41 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass208
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