International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
(Eleusine indica)

ACCase inhibitors (A/1)

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Brazil this weed first evolved resistance to Group A/1 herbicides in 2003 and infests Soybean.   Group A/1 herbicides are known as ACCase inhibitors (Inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim and they may be cross-resistant to other Group A/1 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Oct 21, 2007 )

Common NameGoosegrass
SpeciesEleusine indica
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Herbicidescyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Rafael De Prado, and Ribas Vidal 
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Ribas Vidal
Goosegrass (Eleusine Indica): First Report Of Target Site Resistance To Accase Inhibitors In A Brazilian Biotype. J. P. Ruiz-Santaella*,1 R. Vidal,2 J. Wagner,3 R. De Prado1; 1Agricultural Chemistry and Edaphology, University of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain, 2Plant Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 3Weed Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a diploid grass weed which has developed resistance to ACCase inhibitors during the last ten years due to the intensive and frequent use of sethoxydim to control grass weeds in soybean crops in Brazil. Dose-response assays confirmed the resistant behavior of this biotype obtaining high RF that ranged from 143 (fenoxaprop), 126 (haloxyfop), 84 (sethoxydim) to 58 (fluazifop). ACCase in vitro assays indicated a target site resistance as the cause of reduced susceptibility to ACCase inhibitors. PCR-generated fragments of the ACCase CT domain of the resistant and sensitive reference biotype were sequenced and compared. A point mutation was detected within the triplet of asparagine at the amino acid position 2078 (referred to EMBL accession no. AJ310767) and resulted in the triplet of glycine. These results constitute the first report on the target site mutation for a Brazilian herbicide resistant weed. The mechanism of herbicide resistance in the goosegrass biotype found in Brazil, add a new species in the increasing list of target-site resistant grass weeds. E-mail:

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Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Goosegrass biotype with this Goosegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on Group A/1 resistant Goosegrass indicate that the inheritance is determined by a nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group A/1 resistant Goosegrass from Brazil indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group A/1 resistant Goosegrass from Brazil please update the database.
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Universidad De Cordoba
Qvimica Agricola Y Edafologa
E T S Ingenieros Agronomos
PO Box 119
Cordoba, E-14080, Andalusia
Email Rafael De Prado
Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Sul
Plant Sciences
Rod. Carlos João Strass
Acesso Orlando, Cx Postal 231,
Porto Alegre, CEP 91001-970, RS
Email Ribas Vidal


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Brazil have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Rafael De Prado, and Ribas Vidal for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
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Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2012 Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5701
2 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11024
3 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Rice, Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, cyhalofop-butyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 4 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5412
4 BoliviaBolivia 2007 Soybean glyphosate 4 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7887
5 BrazilBrazil 2003 Soybean cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 5 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5245
6 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13039
7 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified paraquat 9 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5659
8 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified glyphosate 9 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5661
9 ColombiaColombia 2006 Coffee glyphosate 10 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5365
10 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1989 Industrial sites imazapyr 11 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass73
11 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2010 Pejibaye palm glyphosate 11 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7884
12 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Oil Palm Nursery glyphosate, and paraquat 22 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11020
13 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Corn (maize) paraquat 22 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13034
14 JapanJapan 2013 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass10998
15 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Cropland, and Vegetables fluazifop-P-butyl, and propaquizafop 28 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass133
16 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass140
17 MalaysiaMalaysia 1997 Orchards fluazifop-P-butyl, and glyphosate 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1125
18 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Vegetables glufosinate-ammonium, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7873
19 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Oil Palm Nursery butroxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass9927
20 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1973 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass258
21 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1974 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass266
22 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1987 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass223
23 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1988 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1103
24 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1989 Cotton, and Cropland trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass400
25 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1992 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1043
26 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1994 Cotton pendimethalin, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass255
27 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida1996 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5053
28 United States (Hawaii) United StatesHawaii2003 Turf metribuzin 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5533
29 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5503
30 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5549
Literature about Similar Cases

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