International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP C1/5 RESISTANT COMMON GROUNDSEL
(Senecio vulgaris)


Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)

United Kingdom
INTRODUCTION COMMON GROUNDSEL
Common Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) is a dicot weed in the Asteraceae family.  In United Kingdom this weed first evolved resistance to Group C1/5 herbicides in 1977 and infests Orchards.   Group C1/5 herbicides are known as Photosystem II inhibitors (Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to metribuzin, and simazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group C1/5 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Dec 15, 2013 )

Common NameCommon Groundsel
SpeciesSenecio vulgaris
GroupPhotosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
Herbicidesmetribuzin, and simazine
LocationUnited Kingdom
Year1977
Situation(s)Orchards
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Stephen Moss 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Stephen Moss
Widespread in UK.

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GENERAL

Stephen Moss
All areas have this weed. After no simazine for a few years it is often controlled by the first application but resistance quickly rebuilds.

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GENERAL

Stephen Moss
Holliday R. J. & P.D. Putwain. (1977). Evolution of resistance to simazine in Senecio vulgaris L. Weed Res., 17, 291-296.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Common Groundsel biotype with this Common Groundsel biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group C1/5 resistant Common Groundsel have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group C1/5 resistant Common Groundsel from United Kingdom indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production.  There is no record in this database referring specifically to fitness studies on Group C1/5 resistant Common Groundsel from United Kingdom.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

STEPHEN MOSS
Iacr - Rothamsted
1076 Ag Sci Bldg
PO Box 6108
Harpenden, AL5 2JQ, Hertfordshire
United Kingdom
Email Stephen Moss

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in United Kingdom have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Stephen Moss for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Common Groundsel Globally
(Senecio vulgaris)
Herbicide Resistant Common Groundsel Globally
(Senecio vulgaris)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Common Groundsel Globally
(Senecio vulgaris)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BelgiumBelgium 1982 Corn (maize), Fruit, Nurseries, Railways, and Roadsides simazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel32
2 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario1977 Corn (maize) atrazine 7 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel5066
3 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1988 Orchards, and Railways atrazine, cyanazine, lenacil, prometryn, simazine, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn 12 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel84
4 FranceFrance 1982 Cropland simazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel468
5 FranceFrance 2009 Grapes, and Wheat flazasulfuron, florasulam, imazamox, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, prosulfuron, thiencarbazone-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel11001
6 GermanyGermany 1980 Orchards atrazine 18 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel448
7 NetherlandsNetherlands 1982 Orchards simazine 43 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel220
8 NorwayNorway 1996 Nurseries simazine 31 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel387
9 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1982 Grapes simazine 41 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel205
10 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1987 Vegetables linuron 41 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel206
11 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1977 Orchards metribuzin, and simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel365
12 United States (Washington) United StatesWashington1970 Nurseries simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel386
13 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1981 Asparagus atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel1037
14 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan1990 Blueberries, and Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel5180
15 United States (New York) United StatesNew York1991 Corn (maize) atrazine, and simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel1056
16 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1995 Mint bromoxynil 45 PSII inhibitors (Nitriles) (C3/6)
148Senecio vulgarisCommon Groundsel322
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