International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP C1/5 RESISTANT FRINGED WILLOWHERB
(Epilobium ciliatum)


Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)

United Kingdom
INTRODUCTION FRINGED WILLOWHERB
Fringed Willowherb (Epilobium ciliatum) is a dicot weed in the Onagraceae family.  In United Kingdom this weed first evolved resistance to Group C1/5 herbicides in 1981 and infests Orchards.   Group C1/5 herbicides are known as Photosystem II inhibitors (Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to simazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group C1/5 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameFringed Willowherb
SpeciesEpilobium ciliatum
GroupPhotosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
Herbicidessimazine
LocationUnited Kingdom
Year1981
Situation(s)Orchards
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Stephen Moss 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Stephen Moss
All of UK

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GENERAL

Stephen Moss
Diuron gives best possible control.

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GENERAL

Stephen Moss
Bailey, J. A., W. G. Richardson, and A. G. Jones (1982). The response of willowherbs (Epilobium adenocaulon and Epilobium obscurum) to pre- or post-emergence herbicides. Proceedings 1982 British Crop Protection Conference - Weeds, 1, 299-305.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Fringed Willowherb biotype with this Fringed Willowherb biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group C1/5 resistant Fringed Willowherb have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production.  There is no record in this database referring specifically to fitness studies on Group C1/5 resistant Fringed Willowherb from United Kingdom.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

STEPHEN MOSS
Iacr - Rothamsted
1076 Ag Sci Bldg
PO Box 6108
Harpenden, AL5 2JQ, Hertfordshire
United Kingdom
Email Stephen Moss

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in United Kingdom have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Stephen Moss for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
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Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BelgiumBelgium 1980 Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides atrazine, and simazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb34
2 BelgiumBelgium 1982 Pears paraquat 3 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb39
3 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb375
4 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Orchards simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb363
5 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1989 Hops paraquat 44 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb360
Literature about Similar Cases

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