International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP D/22 RESISTANT FRINGED WILLOWHERB
(Epilobium ciliatum)


PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)

United Kingdom
INTRODUCTION FRINGED WILLOWHERB
Fringed Willowherb (Epilobium ciliatum) is a dicot weed in the Onagraceae family.  In United Kingdom this weed first evolved resistance to Group D/22 herbicides in 1989 and infests Hops.   Group D/22 herbicides are known as PSI Electron Diverter (Photosystem-I-electron diversion).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group D/22 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameFringed Willowherb
SpeciesEpilobium ciliatum
GroupPSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Herbicidesparaquat
LocationUnited Kingdom
Year1989
Situation(s)Hops
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Stephen Moss 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Stephen Moss
All of UK

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CONTROL STRATEGIES

Stephen Moss
Diuron + paraquat gives best possible control.

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GENERAL

Stephen Moss
Clay, D. V. 1989. New developments in triazine and paraquat resistance and co-resistance in weed species in England. Brighton Crop Protection Conference - Weeds - 1989.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field trials comparing a known susceptible Fringed Willowherb biotype with this Fringed Willowherb biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group D/22 resistant Fringed Willowherb have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group D/22 resistant Fringed Willowherb from United Kingdom please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

STEPHEN MOSS
Iacr - Rothamsted
1076 Ag Sci Bldg
PO Box 6108
Harpenden, AL5 2JQ, Hertfordshire
United Kingdom
Email Stephen Moss

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in United Kingdom have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Stephen Moss for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BelgiumBelgium 1980 Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides atrazine, and simazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb34
2 BelgiumBelgium 1982 Pears paraquat 3 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb39
3 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb375
4 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Orchards simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb363
5 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1989 Hops paraquat 44 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb360
Literature about Similar Cases

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