International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP C1/5 RESISTANT BLACK NIGHTSHADE
(Solanum nigrum)


Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)

Belgium
INTRODUCTION BLACK NIGHTSHADE
Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum) is a dicot weed in the Solanaceae family.  In Belgium this weed first evolved resistance to Group C1/5 herbicides in 1981 and infests Corn (maize), and Roadsides.   Group C1/5 herbicides are known as Photosystem II inhibitors (Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to atrazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group C1/5 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameBlack Nightshade
SpeciesSolanum nigrum
GroupPhotosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
Herbicidesatrazine
LocationBelgium
Year1981
Situation(s)Corn (maize), and Roadsides
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Robert Bulcke 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Robert Bulcke
In all 9 provinces of Belgium.

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GENERAL

Robert Bulcke
Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum are the most common and important R-biotypes, especially in silage corn.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Black Nightshade biotype with this Black Nightshade biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group C1/5 resistant Black Nightshade have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production.  There is no record in this database referring specifically to fitness studies on Group C1/5 resistant Black Nightshade from Belgium.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ROBERT BULCKE
University Gent
Lab. Of Herbology - U. G.

Plant Div
635 Capitol St NE, Weed Control Program
Gent, B-9000
Belgium
Email Robert Bulcke

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Belgium have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Robert Bulcke for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar, and Vegetables paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade11025
2 BelgiumBelgium 1981 Corn (maize), and Roadsides atrazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade31
3 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1999 Corn (maize) atrazine 12 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5051
4 FranceFrance 1979 Cropland atrazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade472
5 GermanyGermany 1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 18 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade439
6 ItalyItaly 1978 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 24 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade113
7 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade135
8 NetherlandsNetherlands 1981 Corn (maize) atrazine 43 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade218
9 New ZealandNew Zealand 1999 Corn (maize) atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, and terbuthylazine 30 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5106
10 New ZealandNew Zealand 2009 Sweet potato paraquat 30 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5731
11 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade376
12 SpainSpain 1987 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade180
13 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1983 Cropland, and Pastures atrazine 41 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade207
14 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1983 Corn (maize) simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade364
Literature about Similar Cases

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