International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP A/1 RESISTANT LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
(Phalaris minor)


ACCase inhibitors (A/1)

Pakistan, Punjab
INTRODUCTION LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
Little seed Canary grass (Phalaris minor) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Pakistan this weed first evolved resistance to Group A/1 herbicides in 2015 and infests Wheat.   Group A/1 herbicides are known as ACCase inhibitors (Inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group A/1 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Apr 11, 2017 )

Common NameLittle seed Canary grass
SpeciesPhalaris minor
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Herbicidesfenoxaprop-P-ethyl
LocationPakistan, Punjab
Year2015
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Tasawer Abbas 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Tasawer Abbas

Evaluation and management of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor resistant littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor) in Pakistan

Tasawer Abbas, Muhammad Ather Nadeem, Asif Tanveer, Hafiz Haider Ali & Amar Matloob (2017): Evaluation and management of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor resistant littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor) in Pakistan, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, DOI: 10.1080/03650340.2017.1296135

ABSTRACT A field survey was conducted for the sampling of Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor resistance littleseed canarygrass, a major weed of wheat, from Punjab, Pakistan in 2014 for confirmation of resistance. The surveyed regions encompassed four different cropping systems including rice–wheat, maize–wheat, cotton–wheat and mixed cropping. Dose–response assay was conducted for confirmation of resistance. Efficacy of herbicide mixtures including clodinafop–propargyl, metribu-zin, pinoxaden and sulfosulfuron at a range of doses was investigated to manage littleseed canarygrass. Results revealed that all populations were resistant to fenoxaprop except PM-BWL-2. The higher level resistance (6.5) was found in populations collected from rice–wheat cropping sys­tem. The tested herbicide mixtures at 75% and 100% of the recom­mended dose of each mixture component provided the effective control of resistant littleseed canarygrass. Mixtures at 50% provided more than 80% control and reduced growth and seed production poten­tial of surviving plants. The confirmation of ACCase inhibitor resistance as the first case of herbicide resistance in Pakistan, leads us to discourage use of ACCase inhibitor herbicides alone. However, herbicide mixtures at 75% and 100% of the recommended dose are suggested to manage this weed for sustainable wheat production in the surveyed cropping systems.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Little seed Canary grass biotype with this Little seed Canary grass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A/1 resistant Little seed Canary grass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group A/1 resistant Little seed Canary grass from Pakistan please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

TASAWER ABBAS
Weed Scientist
University of Agriculture Faisalabad
Agronomy
Agriculture University Road
Faisalabad, 3800, Faisalabad
Pakistan
Email Tasawer Abbas

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Pakistan have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Tasawer Abbas for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2012 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7838
2 IndiaIndia 1991 Wheat isoproturon 21 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass222
3 IndiaIndia 1994 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 21 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7815
4 IndiaIndia 2006 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 21 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5324
5 IndiaIndia 2013 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 21 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7816
6 IranIran 2004 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5377
7 IsraelIsrael 1993 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 23 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass111
8 MexicoMexico 1996 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, pinoxaden, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 29 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass478
9 PakistanPakistan 2015 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 86 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass15074
10 South AfricaSouth Africa 1999 Pastures, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, haloxyfop-P-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, propaquizafop, quizalofop-P-tefuryl, and sulfosulfuron 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5194
11 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2001 Onions clethodim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5163
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Thursday, May 25, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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