International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
HRAC GROUP 22 (LEGACY D) RESISTANT REDFLOWER RAGLEAF
(Crassocephalum crepidioides)


PS I Electron Diversion HRAC Group 22 (Legacy D)

Malaysia, Pahang
INTRODUCTION REDFLOWER RAGLEAF
Redflower Ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides) is a dicot weed in the Asteraceae family.  In Malaysia this weed first evolved resistance to Group 22 (Legacy D) herbicides in 1990 and infests Vegetables.   Group 22 (Legacy D) herbicides are known as PS I Electron Diversion (PSI Electron Diversion ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 22 (Legacy D) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameRedflower Ragleaf
SpeciesCrassocephalum crepidioides
GroupPS I Electron Diversion HRAC Group 22 (Legacy D)
Herbicidesparaquat
LocationMalaysia, Pahang
Year1990
Situation(s)Vegetables
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Baki Bakar 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Baki Bakar
Pahang, Kelantam, and Perak States

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GENERAL

Baki Bakar
Paraquat resistance in Solanum nigrum, Crassocephalum crepidiodes, Amaranthus lividus and Conyza sumatrensis in Malaysia. K. Itoh, M. Azmi, and A. Ahmad. In: IWCC Proceedings of the first International Weed Control Congress, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field trials comparing a known susceptible Redflower Ragleaf biotype with this Redflower Ragleaf biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 22 resistant Redflower Ragleaf have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 22 (Legacy D) resistant Redflower Ragleaf from Malaysia please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

BAKI BAKAR
Senior Research Fellow
Institute of Biological Sciences, University Of Malaya
Dept. Of Botany
Faculty of Science Building
Kuala Lumpur, 50603 , Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
Email Baki Bakar
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Malaysia have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Baki Bakar for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Redflower Ragleaf Globally
(Crassocephalum crepidioides)
Herbicide Resistant Redflower Ragleaf Globally
(Crassocephalum crepidioides)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Redflower Ragleaf Globally
(Crassocephalum crepidioides)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
66Crassocephalum crepidioidesRedflower Ragleaf136
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