International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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GROUP G/9 RESISTANT GOOSEGRASS
(Eleusine indica)


EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)

Brazil, Paraná (PR)
INTRODUCTION GOOSEGRASS
Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Brazil this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2016 and infests Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat.   Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group G/9 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jun 28, 2016 )

Common NameGoosegrass
SpeciesEleusine indica
GroupEPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Herbicidesglyphosate
LocationBrazil, Paraná (PR)
Year2016
Situation(s)Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Jamil Constantin, Rubem Oliveira, and Hudson Takano 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Rubem Oliveira
The Goosegrass populations from Brazil survived and reproduced at a lethal dose to the wild type. There are other Eleusine indica (Goosegrass) populations resistant to glyphosate around the world in countries such as US, Argentina, Malaysia, China, Philippines, Japan and Colombia.
  • University of Maringá has been working with 25 populations of goosegrass from states of Paraná (PR) and Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) for the last two years (2014 and 2015). The “X rate”of glyphosate = 960 g ae ha-1 showed poor performance.
  • Dose/response curves were conducted with doses of 0, 60, 120, 240, 480, 960, 1620, 3240 and 7480 g ae ha-1 and 90% of control was achieved only with > 1620 g ae ha-1.
  • The level of resistance was: 2 to 8 fold (Table 1 and Figure 1).
  • In a second study of dose/response curve, we used different rates (720, 960, 1200 and 1440 g ae ha-1) to detail the response. None of these doses provided 80% control.
Mechanism of resistance:
  • Shikimate lab assay: Significant differences on shikimate accumulation between R and S population (540 and 1440 g ae ha-1) (Figure 2).
  • EPSPS mutation: Mutation in a Proline to a Serine at 106 position (Figure 3).
The main problem is located in grain production areas (RR Soybean/Corn/Wheat) around Campo Mourão, PR – Brazil

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Goosegrass biotype with this Goosegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group G/9 resistant Goosegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group G/9 resistant Goosegrass from Brazil indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group G/9 resistant Goosegrass from Brazil please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JAMIL CONSTANTIN
Associate Professor
Universidade Estadual de Maringá
Departamento de Agronomia
Av. Colombo
5790
Maringá, PR, 87020-900, Paraná
Brazil
Email Jamil Constantin
Web   : Web Site Link
RUBEM OLIVEIRA
Associate Professor
Universidade Estadual De Maringá - Departamento De Agronomia
Núcleo De Estudos Avançados Em Ciência Das Plantas Daninhas
Av. Colombo 5790
Maringá, 87020-900, Paraná
Brazil
Email Rubem Oliveira
Web   : Web Site Link
HUDSON TAKANO
Graduate Student
State University of Maringá
Núcleo de Estudos Avançados em Ciência das Plantas Daninhas
Colombo Avenue
5790, I-45 Building
Maringá, 87020900, Paraná
Brazil
Email Hudson Takano
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Brazil have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Jamil Constantin, Rubem Oliveira, and Hudson Takano for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2012 Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5701
2 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11024
3 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Rice, Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, cyhalofop-butyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 4 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5412
4 BoliviaBolivia 2007 Soybean glyphosate 4 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7887
5 BrazilBrazil 2003 Soybean cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 5 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5245
6 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13039
7 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified paraquat 9 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5659
8 ChinaChina 2010 Orchards glyphosate 9 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5661
9 ColombiaColombia 2006 Coffee glyphosate 10 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5365
10 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1989 Industrial sites imazapyr 11 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass73
11 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2010 Pejibaye palm glyphosate 11 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7884
12 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Oil Palm Nursery glyphosate, and paraquat 22 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11020
13 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Corn (maize) paraquat 22 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13034
14 JapanJapan 2013 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass10998
15 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Cropland, and Vegetables fluazifop-P-butyl, and propaquizafop 28 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass133
16 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass140
17 MalaysiaMalaysia 1997 Orchards fluazifop-P-butyl, and glyphosate 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1125
18 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Vegetables glufosinate-ammonium, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7873
19 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Oil Palm Nursery butroxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass9927
20 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1973 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass258
21 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1974 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass266
22 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1987 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass223
23 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1988 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1103
24 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1989 Cotton, and Cropland trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass400
25 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1992 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1043
26 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1994 Cotton pendimethalin, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass255
27 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida1996 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5053
28 United States (Hawaii) United StatesHawaii2003 Turf metribuzin 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5533
29 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5503
30 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5549
31 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 PPO inhibitors (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15072
32 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 PPO inhibitors (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15073
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