International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT CALIFORNIA ARROWHEAD
(Sagittaria montevidensis)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

Brazil, Santa Catarina
INTRODUCTION CALIFORNIA ARROWHEAD
California Arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) is a monocot weed in the Alismataceae family.  In Brazil this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 1999 and infests Rice.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to bispyribac-sodium, cyclosulfamuron, ethoxysulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Feb 05, 2001 )

Common NameCalifornia Arrowhead
SpeciesSagittaria montevidensis
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicidesbispyribac-sodium, cyclosulfamuron, ethoxysulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl
LocationBrazil, Santa Catarina
Year1999
Situation(s)Rice
Contributors - (Alphabetically)José Noldin 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

José Noldin
Gaspar, Ilhota

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GENERAL

José Noldin
Sagittaria montevidensis infestation in rice fields in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, started in the 80's. In 1991, it was labeled the first ALS herbicide for irrigated rice in Brazil (pyrazosulfuron). The grower where the resistent biotype was first found, used the same herbicide (pyrazosulfuron) for 12 sucessive crops (two crops/year). The infestation of the resistant biotype in this site is very high, 500 - 1000 seedlings per square meter. Other_Researchers: José Alberto Noldin, weed scientist at Epagri/Estação Experimental de Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. e-mail:noldin@epagri.rct-sc.br Domingos Sávio Eberhardt, Researcher, e-mail: savio@epagri.rct-sc.br.

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GENERAL

José Noldin
José Noldin: Sagittaria montevidensis infestation in rice fields in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, started in the 80's. In 1991, it was labeled the first ALS herbicide for irrigated rice in Brazil (pyrazosulfuron). The grower where the resistant biotype was first found, used the same herbicide (pyrazosulfuron) for 12 sucessive crops (two crops/year). The infestation of the resistant biotype in this site is very high, 500 - 1000 seedlings per square meter.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible California Arrowhead biotype with this California Arrowhead biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant California Arrowhead have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant California Arrowhead from Brazil please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JOSÉ NOLDIN
Weed Scientist
Epagri - Agri. And Extn Inst. For Santa Catarina State
Itajai Experiment Station
Dept of Agronomy Horticulture
PO Box 830915, 362 Plant Science
Itajaí, 88301-970, Santa Catarina
Brazil
Email José Noldin

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Brazil have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to José Noldin for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant California Arrowhead Globally
(Sagittaria montevidensis)
Herbicide Resistant California Arrowhead Globally
(Sagittaria montevidensis)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant California Arrowhead Globally
(Sagittaria montevidensis)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1994 Rice bensulfuron-methyl 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
146Sagittaria montevidensisCalifornia Arrowhead7
2 BrazilBrazil 1999 Rice bispyribac-sodium, cyclosulfamuron, ethoxysulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 5 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
146Sagittaria montevidensisCalifornia Arrowhead1179
3 BrazilBrazil 2009 Rice bentazon, bispyribac-sodium, ethoxysulfuron, imazethapyr, metsulfuron-methyl, penoxsulam, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitors (Nitriles) (C3/6)
146Sagittaria montevidensisCalifornia Arrowhead5588
4 ChinaChina 2003 Rice bensulfuron-methyl, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 9 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
146Sagittaria montevidensisCalifornia Arrowhead5303
5 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1993 Rice bensulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
146Sagittaria montevidensisCalifornia Arrowhead390
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