International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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GROUP B/2 RESISTANT CORN POPPY
(Papaver rhoeas)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

Greece
INTRODUCTION CORN POPPY
Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) is a dicot weed in the Papaveraceae family.  In Greece this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 1998 and infests Winter wheat.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to chlorsulfuron, florasulam, imazamox, pyrithiobac-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 12, 2012 )

Common NameCorn Poppy
SpeciesPapaver rhoeas
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicideschlorsulfuron, florasulam, imazamox, pyrithiobac-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl
LocationGreece
Year1998
Situation(s)Winter wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Ilias Eleftherohorinos, Nikolaos Kaloumenos, and Eleni Kotoula-Syka 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Eleni Kotoula-Syka
Papaver rhoeas with resistance to chlorsulfuron (G2) and cross-resistance to tribenuron methyl, triasulfuron and thifensulfuron methyl was found in Greece in 1998. Resistance was confirmed by greenhouse/lab tests. The resistant population was found in winter wheat. The number of resistant sites are 1 and the area infested (acres) is >10000. The site spread is increasing and the area spread (acres) is increasing. Seeds of Papaver rhoeas were collected from 1 winter wheat site in North Greece, repeatedly treated with chlorsulfuron (more than 10 years) and from 1 site that had never been treated with ALS inhibitors. Plants grown from seeds of resistant biotype survived post-em application of chlorsulfuron, tribenuson methyl, triasulfuron and thifensulfuron methyl at rates up to 160 g ai/ha. Susceptible biotype was killed by the above mentioned sulfonylureas at rate of 5 g ai/ha. ALS activity was determined in very young leaves. The activity of the enzyme isolated from the resistant biotype was higher than the enzyme of the susceptible biotype. These data showed that resistance to ALS inhibitors was caused by an alteration of the target site of these herbicides. Source: Eleni Kotoula - Syka.

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MECHANISM

Ilias Eleftherohorinos

Corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas) cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

Nikolaos S Kaloumenos, Vasiliki N Adamouli, Christos A Dordas and Ilias G Eleftherohorinos

Pest Manag Sci 2011; 67: 574–585

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Papaver rhoeas (L.) has evolved resistance to tribenuron in winter wheat fields in northern Greece owing to multiple Pro197 substitutions. Therefore, the cross-resistance pattern to other sulfonylurea and non-sulfonylurea ALS-inhibiting herbicides of the tribenuron resistant (R) and susceptible (S) corn poppy populations was studied by using whole-plant trials and in vitro ALS catalytic activity assays.

RESULTS: The whole-plant trials revealed that tribenuron R populations were also cross-resistant to sulfonylureas mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron, chlorsulfuron and triasulfuron. The whole-plant resistance factors (RFs) calculated for pyrithiobac, imazamox and florasulam ranged from 12.4 to >88, from 1.5 to 28.3 and from 5.6 to 25.4, respectively, and were lower than the respective tribenuron RF values (137 to >2400). The ALS activity assay showed higher resistance of the ALS enzyme to sulfonylurea herbicides (tribenuron > chlorsulfuron) and lower resistance to non-sulfonylurea ALS-inhibiting herbicides (pyrithiobac > florasulam ≈ imazamox).

CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that Pro197 substitution by Ala, Ser, Arg or Thr in corn poppy results in a less sensitive ALS enzyme to sulfonylurea herbicides than to other ALS-inhibiting herbicides. The continued use of sulfonylurea herbicides led to cross-resistance to all ALS-inhibiting herbicides, making their use impossible in corn poppy resistance management programmes.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Corn Poppy biotype with this Corn Poppy biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Corn Poppy indicate that the inheritance is determined by a one gene, nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group B/2 resistant Corn Poppy from Greece indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

Researchers have indicated that Group B/2 resistant Corn Poppy is ecologically less fit than normal susceptible Corn Poppy.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the fitness of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ILIAS ELEFTHEROHORINOS
University Of Thessaloniki
Laboratory Of Agronomy
4033 Kensington Pl
Ghessaloniki, 54006
Greece
Email Ilias Eleftherohorinos
NIKOLAOS KALOUMENOS
Aristotle University Of Thessaloniki
Department Of Agriculture
4033 Kensington Pl
Thessaloniki, 54006
Greece
Email Nikolaos Kaloumenos
ELENI KOTOULA-SYKA
Natl Agric Res Fndn
Department Of Agriculture
85 26th Ave N
Thessaloniki, 54006
Greece
Email Eleni Kotoula-Syka

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Greece have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Ilias Eleftherohorinos, Nikolaos Kaloumenos, and Eleni Kotoula-Syka for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Corn Poppy Globally
(Papaver rhoeas)
Herbicide Resistant Corn Poppy Globally
(Papaver rhoeas)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Corn Poppy Globally
(Papaver rhoeas)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BelgiumBelgium 2014 Wheat florasulam, and metsulfuron-methyl 3 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy10960
2 DenmarkDenmark 2003 Wheat florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and tribenuron-methyl 13 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy5346
3 FranceFrance 2007 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and metsulfuron-methyl 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy5517
4 FranceFrance 2015 Wheat 2,4-D 17 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy18176
5 FranceFrance 2016 Cereals 2,4-D, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, MCPA, mesosulfuron-methyl, and metsulfuron-methyl 17 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy15054
6 GermanyGermany 2012 Cereals, and Rapeseed florasulam, and imazamox 18 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy6743
7 GreeceGreece 1998 Winter wheat chlorsulfuron, florasulam, imazamox, pyrithiobac-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl 19 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy1142
8 GreeceGreece 2002 Wheat 2,4-D, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 19 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy18174
9 ItalyItaly 1998 Durum wheat florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and tribenuron-methyl 24 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy1140
10 ItalyItaly 1998 Wheat 2,4-D, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and tribenuron-methyl 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy5679
11 ItalyItaly 1998 Wheat 2,4-D 24 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy5680
12 PolandPoland 2014 Winter wheat tribenuron-methyl 33 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy10983
13 SpainSpain 1993 Cereals, and Wheat 2,4-D, and tribenuron-methyl 38 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy185
14 SwedenSweden 2011 Winter wheat amidosulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and propoxycarbazone-sodium 40 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy8913
15 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 2001 Cereals metsulfuron-methyl 44 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
123Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy5169
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Wednesday, December 11, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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